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Federal government websites always use a. Vesicular stomatitis virus VSV is a rhabdovirus which causes re-emerging disease in cattle, horses and swine. For the past two decades, VSV has caused disease outbreaks in the western US every years ', ', '95, ', '' Economic impact results in direct loss from decreased animal production Ellis and Kendall , as well as serious economic losses associated with cancellation of livestock events and quarantines which are lifted 21 days after the last clinical sign has abated.

Additional concerns arise from the fact that VS is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease, one of the most devastating exotic diseases in livestock that was eradicated from the US in VSV infects such a broad variety of hosts that it is not clear that any animal is naturally resistant to infection. Clinical signs are well documented Tesh et al. The disease is rarely fatal, but mastitis, anorexia, dehydration, and weight loss result in significant production losses.

Human infection during epizootics is relatively common and is related to direct contact with infected animals Fields and Hawkins , Clewley and Bishop , Reif et al. In the US, human infections are rare Hanson et al. To date, there are no reported cases of human infection resulting from the bite of an infected insect.

Recent VS outbreaks. Veterinarians examine all animals for events and for interstate or international movement. Veterinarians and livestock owners must immediately contact State or Federal animal health authorities if a case of VSV is suspected. If virus isolation and serology confirm a VSV diagnosis, animal health officials and the attending veterinarian are notified and a quarantine is placed on the premises. The most recent outbreak VSV-NJ occurred from to resulting in a total of 13 states, counties, premises, and 1, affected animals.

Mechanisms of pathogenesis and infection. VS spreads through a herd by direct contact days after the initial animal infection Arbelaez and Valbuena , Howerth et al. Virus is shed from oral lesions into saliva Patterson et al. VSV is infectious by the oral route Stallknecht et al. VSV-NJ has been isolated from potential insect vector species during VS outbreaks, including sand flies, black flies, biting midges, eye gnats, and muscoid flies Letchworth et al.

Experimentally infected sand flies, black flies, and Culicoides midges have been shown to be competent vectors and transmit virus by feeding on animals Tesh et al.

Interestingly, VSV does not circulate in blood at levels required to infect blood feeding insects Carbrey, Johnson et al. VS is diagnosed in suspected animals by virus isolation from vesicular fluid or epithelium, detection of viral antigen by capture ELISA Alonso et al.

Treatment, Vaccines, Control. There is no specific treatment or cure for VS. Supportive care soft feeds, fresh, clean water and electrolyte replacement therapy can be helpful. Mild antiseptic mouthwashes and antibiotics are often used to treat or prevent secondary infections. Neutralizing antibodies can last eight years in exposed cattle Sorenson et al. This protection, however, is questionable as most cattle in VS endemic areas have antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus strain causing their clinical disease Rodriguez et al.

Reinfection, in the presence of strain-specific neutralizing antibodies, makes effective vaccination strategies difficult, thus, more molecular targets to interrupt transmission and infection are needed. Recombinant Martinez et al. Several inactivated vaccines are used in Central and South America for animals, but no human vaccines are available. Control of outbreaks is dependent upon rapid recognition of initial cases, quarantine of animals, rigorous disinfection practices personnel materials, instruments, equipment, vehicles, shared equipment, feed bunks, and water sources and insect control.

Alonso, A. Martins, P. Gomes Mda, R. Allende, and M. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection, typing, and subtyping of vesicular stomatitis virus.

J Vet Diagn Invest 3: Situation of the foot-and-mouth disease control programs in South America. Arbelaez, G. Respuesta de dos bovinos adultos inoculados con dos cepas de virus de estomatitis vesicular New Jersey. Revista ICA La instilacion nasal como via de infeccion experimental de estomatitis vesicular tipo Indiana, en bovinos.

Barrera, J. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Brandly, C. Hanson, and T. Brody, J. Fischer, and P. Vesicular stomatitis virus in Panama. Human serologic patterns in a cattle raising area.

Am J Epidemiol Callens, M. De Clercq. J Virol Methods Carbrey, E. Focus on vesicular stomatitis. Its cause, characteristics, and diagnosis. Foreign Animal Disease Reports: Clewley, J. Assignment of the large oligonucleotides of vesicular stomatitis virus to the N, NS, M, G, and L genes and oligonucleotide gene ordering within the L gene. Comer, J. Stallknecht, and V. Incompetence of white-tailed deer as amplifying hosts of vesicular stomatitis virus for Lutzomyia shannoni Diptera: Psychodidae.

Cupp, E. Black fly Diptera: Simuliidae salivary secretions: Importance in vector competence and disease. Drolet, B. Campbell, M. Stuart, and W. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis Diptera: Ceratopogonidae for vesicular stomatitis virus. J Med Entomol Ellis, E. The public health and economic effects of vesicular stomatitis in a herd of dairy cattle.

Fields, B. Human infection with the virus of vesicular stomatitis during an epizootic. Hanson, R. Rasmussen, C. Brandly, and J. Human infection with the virus of vesicular stomatitis. Hernandez De Anda, J. Salman, P. Webb, T. Keefe, A. Arregin Arevalo, and J. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus in cattle in an enzootic region of Mexico.

Am J Vet Res House, J. House, P. Dubourget, and M. Protective immunity in cattle vaccinated with a commercial scale, inactivated, bivalent vesicular stomatitis vaccine. Vaccine Howerth, E. Stallknecht, M. Dorminy, T. Pisell, and G. Experimental vesicular stomatitis in swine: effects of route of inoculation and steroid treatment. Johnson, K.



Roberto C. Segundo 3. Bruno A. Soares 4. Nelson R. Martins 4. Thales A.


Virus de l'estomatitis vesicular


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