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Vennila Academic Year : Even. What is fading? List the different types of fading? This might be so severe that large scale radio propagation loss effects might be ignored. The different types of fading are Fast Fading and Slow Fading. Define Scalability. Define ad hoc networks? This can be a standard Wi-Fi connection, or another medium, such as a cellular or satellite transmission. Write any two characteristics of Wireless channel? List the transmission impairments of wireless channel.

This expression represents the maximum possible rate of information transmission through a given channel or system. The maximum rate we can transmit information is set by the.

C is therefore called the channel's information carrying Capacity. Differentiate an ad hoc network and a cellular network with respect to bandwidth usage and Cost effectiveness. Fixed Infrastructure - based Infrastructure - less. Guaranteed bandwidth designed for Shared Radio channel more suitable voice traffic for best — effort data traffic 4.

Centralized Routing Distributed Routing. Circuit- switched evolving toward Packet- switched evolving toward packet switching emulation of circuit switching 6. Reuse of frequency spectrum through Dynamic frequency reuse based on geographical channel reuse. Why ad hoc networks are needed? What are the challenging issues in ad hoc network maintenance? The Nyquist Theorem, also known as the sampling theorem, is a principle that engineers follow in the digitization of analog signals.

For analog-to-digital conversion ADC to result in a faithful reproduction of the signal, slices, called samples, of the analog waveform must be taken frequently.

Define path loss. Path loss or path attenuation is the reduction in power density attenuation of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space. Path loss is a major component in the analysis and design of the link budget of a telecommunication system. This term is commonly used in wireless communications and signal propagation.

Path loss may be due to many effects, such as free-space loss, refraction, diffraction, reflection, aperture-medium coupling loss, and absorption. List the Applications of ad hoc networks. Define Doppler shift. The Doppler Effect or Doppler shift is the change in frequency of a wave or other periodic event for an observer moving relative to its source. How it can be prevented? Illustrate the characteristic features of Mobile ad hoc Networks and state its applications.

Write in detail about Indoor and Outdoor models in Ad hoc mobility models. Briefly discuss about path loss and fading. Explain using the WAP model. Comment On its challenges in maintaining ad hoc networks that are connect to internet. What are the goals of medium access protocol? Define synchronous protocols. Synchronous is a communications protocol used to send and receive data across high-speed mainframe networks.

Data is synchronized and transmitted using constant intervals between data bits. Request To Send frame. CTS is back to the sender. What are the classifications of MAC protocol? List the design goals of MAC protocol for ad- hoc networks. List the five phases of FPRP. Give the classification of contention based protocol. Give the classifications of MAC protocols.

What do you mean by BTMA? The busy tone multiple access protocol was the first protocol to cobalt the hidden terminal problems of CSMA. BTMA is designed for station based networks and divides the channel into a message channel and the busy tone channel. The Base station transmits a busy tone signal on the busy tone channel as long as it sense carrier on the data channel because the Base station is in line of sight of all terminals, each terminal can sense the busy tone channel to determine the state of the data channel.

How BTMA channel is separated? Explain with an example. Explain in detail about contention based protocols with reservation. How is scheduling mechanism achieved in distributed wireless ordering protocol? Explain in detail. How are Information symmetry and perceived collisions handled? Illustrate various steps involved in five phase reservation protocol with its frame format.

Explain PART A 1. Differentiate proactive and reactive protocol. AU- Nov. Classic routing strategies: link state, a. Only discover routes to destinations distance vector on-demand b. Keep track of routes to all possible b. Consume much less bandwidth but destinations experience substantial delay c. Changes in link connection updated c. Minimal delay but substantial fraction of control information e.

What are the advantages and Disadvantages of hierarchical routing protocol? What is meant by Hierarchical routing? Two types of hierarchical routing a. Strict hierarchical routing: Each node learns about the next cluster at the same level to use, in order to reach each cluster at the same level, within its next ancestral cluster.

Quasi hierarchical routing: Each node learns about the next node to use typically the cluster head the new cluster , in order to reach each cluster at the same level, within its next ancestral cluster. What does power aware routing aim? What is fisheye state routing protocol? What are the major challenges of Qos routing? AMRIS may to exhibit high packet delivery ratio even when all nodes restrict their mobility to a small region.

Differentiate proactive and reactive protocols. Write examples for each. Since proactive routing maintains information that is immediately available, the delay before sending a packet is minimal. On the contrary,. Moreover, the reactive route search procedure may involve significant control traffic due to global flooding. This, together with the long setup delay, may make pure reactive routing less suitable for real-time traffic. However, the traffic amount can be reduced by employing route maintenance schemes.

How does energy aware routing work? Shortest-hop fewest nodes involved ii. Lowest energy route iii. Route via highest available energy iv. Distribute energy burden evenly v. List the advantages and disadvantages of wireless routing protocols. What are the issues in designing routing protocol? What are the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic source routing protocol?

Based on the routing topology how the routing protocols are classified? Mobile ad hoc networks routing protocols are characteristically are subdivided into 3 main categories.

They are Proactive routing protocols, Reactive routing protocols and Hybrid routing--protocols. What is hybrid routing protocol? Zone Routing Protocol or ZRP is a hybrid Wireless Networking routing protocol that uses both proactive and reactive routing protocols when sending information over the network.

List the advantages and disadvantages of DSDV routing protocols.


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Vennila Academic Year : Even. What is fading? List the different types of fading? This might be so severe that large scale radio propagation loss effects might be ignored. The different types of fading are Fast Fading and Slow Fading.

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