Fuel oil also known as heavy oil , marine fuel or furnace oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation , either as a distillate or a residue. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes , cycloalkanes , and aromatics. The term fuel oil is also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil , i. Small molecules like those in propane , naphtha , gasoline for cars, and jet fuel have relatively low boiling points , and they are removed at the start of the fractional distillation process. Heavier petroleum products like diesel fuel and lubricating oil are much less volatile and distill out more slowly, while bunker oil is literally the bottom of the barrel; in oil distilling, the only things denser than bunker fuel are carbon black feedstock and bituminous residue asphalt , which is used for paving roads and sealing roofs. Oil has many uses; it heats homes and businesses and fuels trucks , ships , and some cars.
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Gas Oil is a middle distillate liquid refined from crude oil. It has many different names in the UK and a variety of uses. Gas Oil is a "dual purpose" fuel. It has a high calorific value heat content and is thus recommended as a boiler fuel in industrial or agricultural installations with pressure jet burners e. It can also be used in a diesel engine fuelling off-the-highway equipment such as farm tractors, construction equipment, railway and marine engines, and stationary diesel engines or generators.
A lot of the confusion around Gas Oil, and the variety of different names, has come both from its variety of different uses, and changes to product specification over the last few decades. We will expand on this later. Road fuels, Petrol and Diesel have high duty rates applied to them, but other non-road fuels have lower or zero duty rating applied. As Gas Oil is a form of diesel it can be used in diesel engines to provide propulsion or generation.
Gas Oil is permitted for use in Tractors, hence Tractor Diesel, and on Farms, hence Farm or Agricultural Diesel, and is marked with a red dye to reflect this. The red dye contains chemical markers in accordance to Customs and Excise requirements and so its illegal use can be easily detected. Environmental Legislation has demanded cleaner fuels with less harmful emissions and the British Standard for Gas Oil has changed specification to meet this. Sulphur was identified as one of the most harmful components of Gas Oil, but was historically needed as a lubricant within the fuel.
The Class A2 specification is suitable for both diesel engines and furnace applications whilst the Class D specification is only suitable for furnace applications such as boilers, dryers and roadstone coating plants, but not suitable for diesel engines. As very few engines or burners can now legally use Class D fuel, the fuel industry has concentrated on making, storing, and distributing Class A2.
From a consumers perspective most applications can use Class A2 without any cost or performance implications. EN is the current standard for all automotive diesel fuel sold in the European Union member states. It is published by the European Committee for Standardization and it describes the physical properties of the fuel. It was introduced to partner the European emission standards as part of the drive for a cleaner environment. Class A2 has a maximum sulphur content of 10ppm and is used for off road vehicles and equipment, while Class D has a maximum sulphur content of ppm and can only be used for heating or static generators.
Class A2 gas oil may be used for either application. Gas Oil has a lower cetane rating, so may have a lower energy yield than the DERV vehicle diesel alternative. The higher the cetane rating the shorter the ignition delay.
In the Government changed their legislation as a result of EU pressure to decrease off highway emissions. So in , it became a requirement that all fuel used in off-highway mobile machinery must comply with EU Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel ULSD regulations, and must therefore contain no more than 10mg of sulphur per kg of fuel.
Since white road diesel DERV was already ULSD compliant at this time, it is often believed that the specifications for red diesel and white diesel have been identical since the regulation change, but the potential for the two differences — cetane and bio components remain. In the UK it was found that some modern tractors suffered from poor performance because they were running Class A2 Gas Oil whereas they were designed to operate on fuel that met the higher BS EN white road diesel fuel specification.
John Deere, in particular, specify that fuel used within their engines must comply with the higher BS EN white road diesel fuel specification in order to guarantee performance and avoid invalidating warranties. Since the change is legislation, and because the majority of Gas Oil used in the UK goes into the Agricultural and Commercial markets to power engines, UK refiners and importers have focused on supplying the UK with diesel which meets the highest possible required European standard EN CPS Fuels Gas Oil meets the same BS EN specifications as white road diesel and is therefore suitable for use in all farm machinery without the need for fuel treatments or additives.
If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on our website. However, if you would like to, you can change your cookie settings at any time. Why is Gas Oil Red? Has Gas Oil specification changed? What's the British Standard for Gas Oil? What is EN? So what is my Gas Oil now?
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Gas Oil/ Diesel/ Middle Distillates
One class of fuel oil for agricultural and industrial engines, and seven classes including one for flueless domestic appliances for oil burners are specified. Multi-user access to over 3, medical device standards, regulations, expert commentaries and other documents. Worldwide Standards We can source any standard from anywhere in the world. Learn more about the cookies we use and how to change your settings. Online Tools. Search all products by.
It is predominantly used for non-road mobile machinery and commercial heating. Latest test methods or technical equivalent used. May contain an ignition improver in which case carbon residue test is not valid and the cetane number minimum will apply. The limiting value for carbon residue is based on product prior to addition of ignition improver, if used.
What is Gas Oil? CPS Fuels Information Sheet