The Hungarian language is a member of the Uralic language family. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences and scientific support worldwide accept this conclusion. However, there is a history of other theories from before and after the Uralic connection was established, and some fringe theories continue to deny the connection. Opponents of the Finno-Ugric theory put forward alternative theories in response to two principal problems:. He was the first to put forward a significant alternative origin theory. Budenz's work was investigated and analysed by a group of modern linguists, and they found it neither as scientific nor as conclusive in the question of the affiliation of Hungarian language, as the author stated.
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Consequently it would seem to be sensible to consider the subject closed. Clearly, our wish to revisit the theme, by not accepting at face value the results of two centuries of linguistic research, by respected Egyptologists, needs an explanation. Furthermore, our thesis of having found the origins of the Hungarian language among the remaining hieroglyphs of the Egyptian Old Kingdom and the Classical Period needs to be posited against teachings, accepted for years, - albeit on very slender proof - which state that Hungarian is of Uralic or of Ugor origin.
The following is a summary of our findings through which we intend to resolve the above dichotomies. Clearly, our reasoning needs to be built up from basic concepts, following an unbiased, logical train of thought. This needs to be accomplished step by step, providing sound reasons for discarding, or modifying currently accepted tenets. Quotations, references and hieroglyphs may render the text less fluent, but without these it would be impossible to present an acceptable justification of the Hungarian interpretation of ancient Egyptian writing.
Only after this, can we claim to have a sound enough basis for the demonstration of our thesis, which is the Hungarian interpretation of the hieroglyphs of the Old Kingdom and Classical periods.
We propose to proceed, as follows: A short historical summary 1. Without absorbing these basic concepts, it would be quite impossible to follow our train of thought. We shall introduce the principal elements of the analytical system currently accepted as valid in the pertinent professional literature. We shall show the results achieved to date. We shall also show how incredibly complicated are these presently accepted methods, while showing fundamental weaknesses and limitations, due to the erroneous approach.
We shall reveal the ancient roots of the vowel-change system — known in linguistics as the rebus-system — and will demonstrate its application in practice. This constitutes the essence of hieroglyphic writing. We shall demonstrate that without knowing the language - solely through analysis — it is impossible to decipher the secrets of the hieroglyphs. Consequently, to date no one has Botos, L. What has been achieved is only the identification of equivalent words and expressions.
This, of course, is far from the total resolution facing decipherment. Prior to proceeding further, we shall return to the subject of the linguistic classification of the Hungarian language and we shall examine the presumed phonetic changes.
This is necessary, because our linguists place the Finno-Ugric theory of origin, as an impenetrable wall of rock, in the way of any research that tries to find the roots of the Hungarian language in other directions. We shall show the path we followed 7. We do not arrive at the translations by means of morphology and syntax; rather we read the hieroglyphs directly in the ancestral Magyar language, with clear understanding. The indirect route — the only one open to non-Hungarian speaking linguists — and the direct reading, which we have introduced, produce two diametrically different results, as expected.
Importantly, among other things, the phonology of the ancient language still awaits clarification; in other words the authentic reconstruction of the original language. As we shall see, without it, it is impossible to read the hieroglyphs clearly; it is only possible to get approximate answers.
The explanation of how this is proposed to be applied in practice and the detailed methodology of the Hungarian readings requires a lot more explanation. As we proceed, we shall refrain from bringing copious examples of hieroglyphs, since the examination of the bases does not depend upon the demonstration of the signs that are impossible for many to follow; this task should rather be completed by the correctly composed Hungarian text. Originally we have chosen to use the Hungarian language as the language of our study.
As far as possible, we shall refrain from the use of foreign words and scientific sounding definitions generally given in foreign languages. At the same time, we shall make exceptions in the case of internationally accepted scientific terminology, so that our work may be conveniently followed by specialists in the subject.
The ancient state of our ancestral language was generally best preserved in the regional dialects of our countryside. We have to note that the common Turkish variations begin with j or y. There is no connection with the syllables several consonantal signs , or the independent consonants. Compare with the system of vowel changes. Philosopher and university professor. Its original meaning was a onomatopoeic word meaning a scratching, scraping sound; a carving process which is accompanied by a scratching, scraping sound as something is cut or carved in the writing process.
Its original meaning has fallen out of use today — with the exception of some dialects. Uncertain origin. This usually occurs when the parts are removed one-by-one, or at least they are separated in thought.
For example, if someone counts money, the person separates the coins, one-by-one, or observes these, separating the coins mentally;  o The linguistically accepted ancient meaning of the Hungarian verb olvas to read is identical to the ancient meaning of the process of taking each object separately into account. The words are read out in one unit, without separating the signs in the linear series.
The reader looks for the easiest parts and, at the same time the most important parts of the text, and the rest of the text is completed by the background- knowledge thus gained; in other words, the reader guesses it from the context. On the one hand, frequently occurring words can be read based only upon their outer form. Visual reading is successful, only when the words or the text elements are already familiar to the reader. In many instances, for example when studying scientific texts, one frequently has to revert to the method of auditory reading.
Sketch outlining the evolution of writing in the Nile Valley In the following short summary, we shall clarify the hypothetical steps in the formation and evolution of writing, since in our judgment this information is indispensable to following our train of thought. The history of writing in the Nile Valley, according to the accepted view of today, reaches back some 5, years. Its beginning, according to W. The time period of the Old Kingdom is generally recognized, as falling between and B.
This is the time of building the great pyramids. The first pyramid inscriptions originated in the V and VI Dynasties. Nevertheless the classical period of writing is placed in the late period of the Old Kingdom, and also at the time of the Middle Kingdom and the beginning phase of the New Kingdom B.
Moreover, the papyri, which immortalize the successes of the mathematics of their day, prove the high level of this ancient culture. The New Kingdom — accepted by historians — may have lasted from B. The history of ancient Egypt comes to an end through the late period B. We note that the ancient Egyptian writing can be followed directly and continuously from archaic times through to the end of the Greco-Roman period — that is through four-thousand years — thanks to the large number of remaining inscriptions.
In relation to the brief history of writing on the banks of the Nile, a short history B. The astronomical observations, which stepped into the realm of speculation, were collected here. Scholars lived here at state-expense and were engaged in all branches of science; they searched through the known materials of every branch of science, catalogued and organized these. Their scientific work consisted more of the teaching of existing knowledge than the discovery of new truths.
This, without doubt, went hand in hand with the ability to read the hieroglyphs! According to historians, Alexandria was at that time, the scientific and intellectual centre of the Mediterranean. At that time, they tried to replace the loss from the Royal Library of Pergamum. On the other hand, with the emerging spread of Christianity, the role of the scrolls became less and less important  Our modern age has taken the chronology of Egyptian history from Manetho.
He wrote his summary of history supposedly upon the order of Ptolemaios Philadelphos II in the Greek language. His work, which embraced this time period, regrettably was destroyed thus, only second hand references and sections have survived in the works of Eusebius and Josephus Flavius. The line of great historians of Egyptian historical writing was headed by Herodotus, but Egyptology has also learned a lot from Diodoros, Strabo and even Pliny and Plutarch added to the expansion of knowledge of religious philosophy.
Ptolemaios Soter. Literacy on the banks of the Nile had continued uninterruptedly till this date, at which time it declined, almost terminally. The storms of nearly two thousand years that followed buried not only the ancient culture of the Nile Valley with the sands of the desert, but swept the last vestiges of the ancient hieroglyphic writing from the memory of the descendants.
Only the stones, the temples built of enormous megaliths, the sanctuaries, obelisks, burial chambers and of course the pyramids remained as silent witnesses to posterity. Now we take a huge leap forward in time and continue the history of hieroglyphic writing during the age of Napoleon.
By this time, numerous artefacts had been excavated from the sands, a number of temples and graves had been uncovered and whole series of papyri, beautiful jewellery and mummies have been unearthed from their millennia long slumber.
From the time of the Renaissance onwards, an increasing number of people became interested and were engaged in trying to solve the secrets of ancient decorations, images, and hieroglyphs which were unearthed in large numbers.
At this time they did not know with any certainty, if these images were ancient writings, or not. Some had suspected this; others denied it and considered the hieroglyphs to be just decorations. At first, they thought that each and every hieroglyph - as in Chinese - was an ideogram.
The stone contained beside the hieroglyphic writing, the equivalent texts with demotic signs and, more importantly in Greek. After a few promising attempts, by Orientalists, Silvestre de Sacy and J. According to him, in this ancient writing, besides the already hypothetical alphabetic system J. However he did not get any further than this.
The deciphering of this script is attributed to J. Champollion - The essence of hieroglyphic writing. Here we must pause! This conclusion is fundamental. This error was also supported by some authors from antiquity, like Plutarch and Horapollion. Champollion also struggled with the material for a long time, until he was finally convinced that it is phonetic writing.
Horapollion century A. Supposedly he wrote a book about the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, which regrettably survived only in the Greek variation of Philippos under the title Hieroglyphica. Gentlemen, with all respect!
Dr. Borbola Janos Olvassuk Egyutt Magyarul I
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Alternative theories of Hungarian language origins
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