AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUS PDF

Avian Pneumovirus acts as a primary agent; after that, secondary microorganisms appear and the process may be worsened due to unfavorable environmental conditions. Respiratory signs such as nasal dripping, cough, sneezes, submandibular oedema Swollen Head. Drop in egg production and changes in eggshell colour. Diagnosis by observing symptoms is only for orientational purposes and must be confirmed by other techniques. There is no effective treatment against the disease, although concomitant infections can be controlled.

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Avian pneumoviruses APVs cause major disease and welfare problems in many areas of the world. In turkeys the respiratory disease and the effect on egg laying performance are clearly defined.

However, in chickens, the role of APV as a primary pathogen is less clear, although it is widely believed to be one of the factors involved in Swollen Head Syndrome. The mechanisms of virus transmission over large distances are not understood, but wild birds have been implicated. APV has recently been reported in the USA for the first time and the virus isolated was a different type or possibly a different serotype from the APVs found elsewhere.

Good biosecurity is crucial for controlling infection and highly effective vaccines are available for prophylaxis. Although different subtypes and possibly different serotypes exist, there is good cross protection between them. Diagnosis is usually based on serology using ELISAs, but the available kits give variable results, interpretation is difficult and improved diagnostic tests are required.

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Avian Dis. PMID: Panigrahy B, et al. Detection of avian pneumovirus in tissues and swab specimens from infected turkeys. Pedersen JC, et al. Detection and differentiation of avian pneumoviruses metapneumoviruses.

Cook JK, Cavanagh D. Cook JK, et al. Avian Pathol. PMID: Review. Avian rhinotracheitis. Cook JK. Rev Sci Tech. Show more similar articles See all similar articles. Quan R, et al. Canuti M, et al. Retallack H, et al. Microbiol Resour Announc. Why the evolution of vaccine resistance is less of a concern than the evolution of drug resistance. Kennedy DA, et al. Epub Dec Brown Jordan A, et al. Vet Sci. Show more "Cited by" articles See all "Cited by" articles. Publication types Review Actions.

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Avian pneumovirus, current status and control programmes used

This situation is the direct result of better laboratory diagnosis in suspicious clinical cases, and of growing interest due to losses. Avian metapneumovirus is replicated in the upper respiratory tract in chickens of any age from birth Hafez ; Cook and in the reproductive tract after a viraemic phase. Clinical signs are largely respiratory, including sneezing, coughing, nasal secretion, conjunctivitis and oedematous sinuses Images 1 and 2 , and swollen head can present in complex cases with bacterial infections Images 3 and 4. The infection caused by aMPV favours the onset of secondary respiratory infections in chickens and turkeys, as shown with several respiratory pathogens Naylor et al. Breeders and layers are also prone to viral replication in the oviduct, with drop in egg production, and affecting egg shell quality.

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Avian Metapneumovirus

Avian pneumoviruses APVs cause major disease and welfare problems in many areas of the world. In turkeys the respiratory disease and the effect on egg laying performance are clearly defined. However, in chickens, the role of APV as a primary pathogen is less clear, although it is widely believed to be one of the factors involved in Swollen Head Syndrome. The mechanisms of virus transmission over large distances are not understood, but wild birds have been implicated. APV has recently been reported in the USA for the first time and the virus isolated was a different type or possibly a different serotype from the APVs found elsewhere. Good biosecurity is crucial for controlling infection and highly effective vaccines are available for prophylaxis. Although different subtypes and possibly different serotypes exist, there is good cross protection between them.

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Avian Pneumovirus Infections of Turkeys and Chickens

This may result in reduced functionality and affect the graphical presentation of this site. However, all content will still be available. Information supplied by Dr. Qingzhong Yu on the incidence and control of metapneumovirus in the USA. The virus replicates in the respiratory tract and the reproductive tract. It initially causes respiratory disease in infected birds and may also cause drops in egg production in layers and breeders.

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