Abstract: Ontologies and concept taxono mies are essential parts of the S ema ntic Web infrastructure. Since manual. In this paper, an approach for automatic d erivation of concept taxonomies from web. The method is based on generating derivative features from web search data and.
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A variety of systems are used for authoring multimedia presentations such as motion pictures, television shows, advertisements for television, presentations on digital versatile disks DVDs , interactive hypermedia, and other presentations.
Such authoring systems generally provide a user interface and a process through which multimedia data is captured and stored, and through which the multimedia presentation is created, reviewed and published for distribution. The user interface and process for authoring generally depend on the kind of presentation being created and what the system developer believes is intuitive and enables an author to work creatively, flexibly and quickly.
Some multimedia presentations are primarily nontemporal presentations. That is, any change in the presentation typically depends on user activity or other event, instead of the passage of time.
Some nontemporal multimedia presentations may include temporal components. For example, a user may cause a video to be displayed that is related to a text document by selecting a hyperlink to the video in the document.
A variety of authoring tools have been developed for different kinds of presentations. Tools for processing combined temporal and nontemporal media include those described in PCT Publication No. An authoring tool has a graphical user interface enabling interactive authoring of a multimedia presentation including temporal and nontemporal media. The graphical user interface enables specification of the temporal and spatial relationships among the media and playback of the presentation with the specified temporal and spatial relationships.
The spatial and temporal relationships among the media may be changed independently of each other. The presentation may be viewed interactively under the control of the author during the authoring process without encoding the audio and video data into a streaming media data file for combination with the other media, simulating behavior of a browser that would receive a streaming media data file.
The multimedia presentation may include elements that initiate playback of the presentation from a specified point in time. After authoring of the presentation is completed, the authoring tool assists in encoding and transferring the presentation for distribution. Information about the distribution format and location may be stored as user-defined profiles. Communication with the distribution location may be tested and presentation and the distribution information may be audited prior to encoding and transfer to reduce errors.
A presentation is encoded according to the defined temporal and spatial relationships and the distribution format and location information to produce and encoded presentation. The encoded presentation and any supporting media data are transferred to the distribution location, such as a server.
A streaming media server may be used for streaming media, whereas other data may be stored on a conventional data server. Accounts may be provided for a streaming media server for authors to publish their presentations. The authoring tool may be associated with a service that uses the streaming media server.
Such streaming media servers also may be a source of stock footage for use by authors. These various functions, and combinations thereof, of the authoring tool are each aspects of the present invention that may be embodied as a computer system, a computer program product or a computer implemented process that provides these functions. In one embodiment, the spatial relationship may be defined by a layout specification that indicates an association of one or more tracks of temporal media and one or more tracks of nontemporal media with a corresponding display location.
If the temporal media is not visible, such as audio, the spatial relationship may be defined among the nontemporal media. One kind of temporal relationship between nontemporal data and temporal media is provided by a table of contents track. The nontemporal media of elements associated with points in time in the table of contents track of a presentation is combined and displayed for the duration of the presentation.
If a user selects one of the elements from the table of contents track, presentation of the temporal media data is initiated from the point in time associated with that element on the table of contents track. It is also possible to associate a streaming media presentation with another streaming media presentation. For example, an event in one streaming media presentation may be used to initiate playback of another subsequent streaming media presentation.
The two presentations may have different layout specifications. A document in a markup language may be created to include a hyperlink to each of the plurality of streaming media presentations. In this description, all patent applications and published patent documents referred to herein are hereby incorporated by reference.
Referring to FIG. In general, a multimedia presentation is a combination of temporal media, such as video, audio and computer-generated animation, and nontemporal media, such as still images, text, hypertext documents, etc.
Some temporal media, such as animations in the GIF format or the Macromedia Flash formats may be used as if they were nontemporal media. The temporal and nontemporal media may be combined in many different ways.
In general, there is a temporal relationship and a spatial relationship among the temporal and nontemporal media. In some presentations, only a temporal relationship exists between certain temporal media, such as audio, and the nontemporal media. An example presentation shown in FIG. This multimedia presentation includes a hypermedia document , for example in a markup language, including hyperlinks to one or more streaming media presentations, as indicated at , , and Upon selection of a hyperlink, the corresponding streaming multimedia presentation , or may be played.
An event at or near the end of a streaming multimedia presentation may be used to initiate playback of the subsequent multimedia presentation. The different presentations may have different specified spatial relationships. There are many ways in which such multimedia presentations may be stored. The temporal media also may be encoded in a television signal, with nontemporal media encoded in a vertical-blanking interval of the television signal, such as used by WebTV, ATVEF and other formats.
Creating such a multimedia presentation involves creating a temporal relationship between each element of nontemporal media and the temporal media. Such a relationship may be visualized using a timeline, an example of which is shown in FIG. In general, a timeline has one or more tracks of temporal media, and one or more tracks of nontemporal media. For example, there may be one video track, one audio track, and an event track.
The presentation of the media on all the tracks is synchronized by the positions of the elements in the timeline. These positions may be specified graphically through a graphical user interface.
Various data structures may be used to represent such a timeline, such as those described in U. The timeline is a time based representation of a composition. The horizontal dimension represents time, and the vertical dimension represents the tracks of the composition. Each track has a row in the timeline which it occupies. The size of a displayed element in a graphical user interface is determined as a function of the duration of the segment it represents and a timeline scale.
Each element in each track of the timeline has a position determined by its start time within the presentation , a title and associated data and optionally a duration. Each of these tracks will now be described. An audio track or a video track is for placement of temporal media. Similarly, a title track commonly is used to create title effects for movies, such as scrolling credits.
As such, titles commonly are considered temporal media because they have parameters that are animated over time and that are combined with video data. Each track supports defining a sequence of segments of media data. A segment references, either directly or indirectly, the media data for the segment. In the timeline shown herein, event tracks associate nontemporal media with a particular point in time, thus creating a temporal relationship with the temporal media in tracks , , and Each event track is a list of events.
Each event includes a time and references a data file or a uniform resource locator, either directly or indirectly, from which media data for the event may be received.
The table of contents track associates a table of contents entry with a point in time. The table of contents may be used as an index to the temporal media. Each entry includes a time and associated content, typically text, entered by the author.
As described in more detail below, the table of contents entries are combined into a single document for display. If a user selects an element in the table of contents as displayed, the presentation is displayed starting at the point in time corresponding to the selected element. The spatial relationship of the elements in the timeline as presented also may be specified by the author. In one simple example, a layout specification indicates a combination of frames of a display area, of which one or more frames is associated to one or more of the tracks in the timeline.
Some tracks might not be associated with a display frame. Some frames might be associated directly with static media and not with a track. In general a frame is associated with only one track and a track is associated with only one frame.
The possible combinations and arrangements of the various tracks in a timeline are unlimited, and are not limited to visual media. As shown in the examples in FIG. These examples are merely illustrative. In some cases, the audio has a corresponding visual component that may be displayed, such as volume and position controls.
Video may be displayed, for example, with an event track , or a table of contents track , or both , such as shown in FIG.
A graphical user interface, and example of which is described in connection with FIG. A graphical user interface, an example of which is described in connection with FIG. In FIG. A template defines a mapping between frames and tracks and a display arrangement of the frames such as described in FIG. A selected template such as is viewed in a preview pane A user may browse the file system to identify other templates by selecting a button as in conventional user interfaces.
A template may be defined using the hypertext markup language HTML , for example by using frame set definitions. A template may be authored using any conventional HTML authoring tool, word processor or text editor. In the user interface, a template file may be accessed to determine its frame set definitions to generate an appropriate icon for display.
Similarly, the preview pane is generated by accessing the frame set definition within the selected template file. The mapping between frames and tracks also is stored in the template file.
These elements keep track of the mappings between frames and tracks. A template may include other content and structure beyond that shown in the example. For example, a company may want all of its presentations to use the same logo in the same position. This consistency may be provided by adding a reference to the logo to the template. By selecting the next button in FIG.
Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries
A variety of systems are used for authoring multimedia presentations such as motion pictures, television shows, advertisements for television, presentations on digital versatile disks DVDs , interactive hypermedia, and other presentations. Such authoring systems generally provide a user interface and a process through which multimedia data is captured and stored, and through which the multimedia presentation is created, reviewed and published for distribution. The user interface and process for authoring generally depend on the kind of presentation being created and what the system developer believes is intuitive and enables an author to work creatively, flexibly and quickly. Some multimedia presentations are primarily nontemporal presentations. That is, any change in the presentation typically depends on user activity or other event, instead of the passage of time.
Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design II
This application is a continuation of and claims priority to U. The following patent applications are related to the present application, are assigned to the assignee of this patent application, and are expressly incorporated by reference herein:. Installation of traditional PC applications requires physical media, such as a disk or CD-ROM that must be physically inserted into a computer in order for software to be loaded onto a user's computer. Typically, this process requires the user to enter settings information that can be confusing to the user. Once the software is installed, it is typically fixed in terms of its location and functionality.
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