Confusion in the taxonomy and systematics of the two distinct genera and several species assigned properly or mistakenly to either one or the other genus, has stemmed from the different names used in commerce and farming, and the lack of materials for proper identification. No other detailed documentation of the invasiveness of these species has been published. The thallus of Eucheuma denticulatum ranges from 35 to 74 cm. Rhizoids of the medulla are present but thylles are absent. Cystocarps and carpospores have not been observed in this species after Azanza-Corrales,
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Confusion in the taxonomy and systematics of the two distinct genera and several species assigned properly or mistakenly to either one or the other genus, has stemmed from the different names used in commerce and farming, and the lack of materials for proper identification. No other detailed documentation of the invasiveness of these species has been published. The thallus of Eucheuma denticulatum ranges from 35 to 74 cm.
Rhizoids of the medulla are present but thylles are absent. Cystocarps and carpospores have not been observed in this species after Azanza-Corrales, Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.
When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Reproductive Biology The life cycle of Eucheuma spp. The vegetative and reproductive structures of tetrasporic and gametophytic populations and their occurrence in farming sites in the Philippines have been reported.
Dawes found no differences in carrageenan yield between sexual stages of Eucheuma. Male gametophytes and structures are rare to unknown in this genus. In a study conducted by Azanza-Corrales et al. Sporogenesis and gametogenesis might occur without release or germination. Spores might be released but lack of suitable substrates at the site would lessen the possibility of spore settlement and germination.
Clone cultivation, however, is presently very useful for farming; further research, should therefore include the use of sporelings for culture as in other economically important seaweeds such as Porphyra and Laminaria. Sporeling cultivation could provide the possibility of other farming manipulations and increase genetic variation.
Field studies on these crops have shown the negative effects of exposure to excessive light. Light response curves have been plotted for the commercial eucheumatoids. The different colour types of E. Ecotypic differentiation and variation in photosynthetic efficiency have been shown for E. Temperature responses of this crop have been well studied in the field and laboratory. In tropical areas, Trono and Ohno reported that rapid growth and high biomass production by Kappaphycus and Eucheuma occur during months characterized by warmer temperature, i.
The growth or photosynthetic response of commercial eucheumatoids in relation to salinity has not been reported. According to Mathieson and Dawes in E. Mairh et al. Ask and Azanza suggested that single and interactive effects of salinity with other factors on the commercial cultivation of Eucheuma should be studied because in shallow floating forms or off bottom farms exposed at low tide the crops can be exposed to rapid decreases in salinity during tropical downpours.
Noticeable drops in temperature and light levels also occur and plants located in the inter-tidal zone can experience rapid changes in salinity from freshwater runoff.
Ask E, Cottonii and Spinosum Cultivation Handbook. Science Diliman, 15 2 Ask EI, Creating a sustainable commercial Eucheuma cultivation industry: the importance and necessity of the human factor. Advances in cultivation technology of commercial eucheumatoid species: a review with suggestions for future research. Azanza RV; Aliaza T, Azanza-Corrales R, Wound healing in cultured Eucheuma alvarezii var. Aquaculture, Peche, Bull. Peches Marit. Burges Watson D, Carrageenan - Food Reference Website.
Online at www. Accessed 17 August Genetic manipulation and strain improvement of seaweeds for aquaculture. Abundance and spread of the invasive red algae, Kappaphycus spp. Biological Invasions, 7 6 Genetic variation of Kappaphycus alvaerizii Doty grown on different coasts of central and southern Vietnam. Dawes CJ, Physiological and biochemical comparisons of species of Eucheuma yielding iota carrageenan from Florida and the Gulf of California with E.
In: Jenson A, Stein J, eds. Temperature acclimation of cultured Eucheuma isiforme from Florida and E. Branch, micropropagule and tissue culture of the red algae Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii farmed in the Philippines. Journal of Applied Phycology, 3 3 Clonal Propagation of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii for Philippines seaweed farms.
Hydrobiologia, , Strain selection in Kappaphycus alvarezii var. Silva Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae using tetraspores progeny. Oceanis, 15 5 Doty MS, Status of marine agronomy with special reference to the tropics. Proceedings of the 9th International Seaweed Symposium. Science Press, Princeton, Outplanting Eucheuma species and Gracilaria species in the Tropics.
Eucheuma alvarezii sp. Gigartinales, Rhodophyta from Malaysia. California Sea Grant College Program. Eucheuma species Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta that are major sources of carrageenan.
Betaphycus philippinensis Gen. Et Sp. In: Abbott IA, ed. California Sea Grant College System, Seaweed farms: a new approach for US industry.
Status, problems, advances and economics of Eucheuma farms. Water motion affects the growth rates of Kappaphycus alvarezii and related red seaweeds. Effects of selected cultivation conditions on the yield and properties of carrageenan of Kappaphycus alvarezii Rhodophyta in Brazil. Micro-propagation improved by colchicines and phytoregulators in Kappaphycus alvarezii "Edison de Paula" Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae , a strain selected from tetraspore progeny.
Karyology, Nuclear genome quantification and characterization of the carrageenophytes Eucheuma and Kappaphycus Gigartinales. Occasional pathogenic bacteria promoting ice-ice disease in the carrageenan-producing red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum Soliariaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta.
Lirasan T; Twide P, Farming Eucheuma in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Llana MEG, Status of production and utilization of seaweeds in the Philippines. August , Cebu City, Philippines. Photosynthesis and respiration. The world seaweed industry and trade; developing Asian producers for greater participation. The effect of nutrients on the growth and carrageenan properties of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Impact of large scale Kappaphycus alvarezii cultivation in coastal waters of India.
Rapid survey technique using socio-economic indicators to assess the suitability of Pacific Island rural communities for Kappaphycus seaweed farming development. The growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty Doty and Kappaphycus striatum Schmitz cultivated in the different temperature seasons. Cultivation and carrageenan yield and quality of Kappaphycus alvarezii in the waters of Vietnam. On the growth of cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii in Vietnam. Sorui , Factors affecting the growth rate of Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty Doty ex P.
Prakash J, Introduction and commercial cultivation of the red alga Eucheuma in Venezuela for the production of phycocolloids. World Aquaculture Magazine, 30 2 Russell DJ, Micronesia, 18 2
Eucheuma denticulatum Burm. It has recently been distributed further eastward by man into the Pacific at least as far as Hawaii, Micronesia Pohnapei and Christmas Island in easternmost Kiribati. In Indonesia, farming trials with E. It appears that the carrageenan from E. It is used in industrial food and beauty aid products, in pet foods, in granulated or hydrated gel components in various formulations, or prepared as a stew mixed with vegetables. It is used as garnish for other dishes such as fish.
Eucheuma denticulatum , a perennial red seaweed, is composed of rigid clumps of low-growing, cartilaginous thalli. These clumps can range in size depending on growing conditions, but are able to reach considerable size, up to 50 centimeters in length and weighing over 1 kilogram. The primary axis and regularly spaced branches are cylindrical, each bearing whorled spinose spine-like branchlets which sometimes develop into secondary lateral branches. This one species can be found in a variety of shades from brown to green to red, especially when cultivated. This algae has the unique ability of its branches to form secondary holdfasts to other plants as well as the substrate, forming thick carpet-like beds of seaweed where individual plants are hard to distinguish. This growth pattern coupled with the strength of the holdfasts enables Eucheuma denticulatum to withstand such strong water movement without being torn up or shredded.