We provide here a checklist of species of Monogononta rotifers from lentic and lotic environments in Argentina, 25 years after the initial catalogue compiled by Susana B. This new inventory now includes the reports on rotifers documented in 93 studies produced after The majority of the investigations were carried out in three of the 24 Argentine provinces. In addition, the presence of 13 species in samples from three water bodies within Buenos Aires province are now cited here for the first time in Argentina.
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We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The diversity of rotifers was studied in three artificial water bodies Azure Lake, Yellow Lake, and Purple Lake , which were once pyrite mines. The physicochemical parameters and the zooplankton composition of the water were determined. Azure Lake had a pH of 3. We also found two species that are rarely observed in Poland Aspelta cincinator and Elosa spinifera , and three species commonly found in acidic water E.
The types of rotifers in Azure Lake differed from those in the other two lakes. The effect of some of the physicochemical parameters on rotifer diversity is discussed. Physikochemische Parameter und die Zusammensetzung des Zooplankton wurden bestimmt. Wasser des blauen Sees hatte pH 3. The chemistry of water that fills former mining excavations can vary greatly depending on the type of mine e. There have been relatively few studies on the organisms living in various post-mining water bodies, as these studies are difficult to conduct and require specialized techniques Woelfl and Whitton However, researchers have begun to describe the organisms that live in these environments Derham ; Geller et al.
There is a relatively large number of reports on the subject of the species diversity and physiology of cyanobacteria and algae DeNicola ; Gross ; Lessmann et al. The limited available information was not sufficient to define the role of planktonic animals in the food web of acidic mine lakes, which differ from that of more conventional lakes Weinthoff et al.
Rotifera are one of the most important groups present in mining lakes Horyath and Hummon ; Deneke ; DeNicola ; Wollmann et al. Previous studies have shown that acidic pit lakes are dominated by only a few species, including Cephalodella hoodi, Rotaria rotatoria, Elosa worallii, C.
The aim of this study was to investigate rotifer diversity and determine the effects of water properties on the rotifer community in three acidic pit lakes, created from abandoned pyrite opencast mines, in the Sudety Mountains in southern Poland. We hypothesized that the low pH and high metal concentrations would result in a low diversity of rotifers. These locations were mined for pyrite from to The color of the lake water depends on the chemical composition of the banks and beds, which are high in iron and copper compounds Uzarowicz and Skiba ; Uzarowicz et al.
Depending on rainfall, Green Lake can temporarily disappear, which was the case during our study. The Azure Lake is fed by a small woodland stream, but the two remaining water bodies are supplied only by precipitation.
Yellow Lake is round in shape and is the smallest of the four lakes. Samples for physicochemical and biological parameter analyses were taken from the deepest sampling points of the Azure, Yellow, and Purple Lakes in Spring May—June and Autumn August—September of and Year was wet, but was dry, during which the water level of Purple and Yellow lakes fell by over a meter.
Samples for chemical analysis were collected from the same points and layers as biological samples, and immediately transported to the laboratory.
Samples collected from the lakes were used to assess rotifer composition. The composition and density of rotifers was determined by counting, using 0. Taxonomic zooplankton analyses were conducted using the identification keys described by Nogrady et al.
To determine the relationship between the physicochemical and biological parameters, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated. The differences between lakes for the physicochemical and biological parameters were analyzed using the Mann—Whitney test with Statistica 12 software StatSoft Inc. The lakes can be divided into two groups: strongly acidic water characterized by a pH of 2. The lakes also differed in their salt concentration, as expressed by their EC.
The concentrations of the major ions and nutrients was not significantly different between the upper and bottom layers in Yellow and Azure Lakes. The differences in rotifer density indicates that Bdelloidea prefer water with a higher pH. Conversely, C. The zooplankton community of the three lakes consisted of 26 rotifer taxa; however, only four taxa were present in all of the studied lakes: Bdelloidea, Kellicottia longispina, Keratella cochlearis and K.
Species composition and dominant taxa were different between lakes and study years. In Purple Lake, E. Cephalodella auriculata, E. Among the species found in the studied lakelets, we observed some rarely reported in Poland: Aspelta cincinator and C. In the Azure Lake, positive correlations were observed between specific species with the concentration of nutrients. The total density of rotifers and K.
While K. Among the rotifer species, positive correlations were found between Bdelloidea and K. Positive relationships among rotifers living in strongly acidic conditions were found for E. In Yellow Lake, K. Some rotifers were positively correlated with particular metals. In Azure Lake, K. In the highly contaminated Purple Lake, E. In ecosystems like these, the biological communities are usually small, with low species diversity.
There are typically no fish, and the role of top predator is taken over by invertebrates Wollmann et al. While the composition of the zooplankton community is controlled by pH and related to water chemistry variables, the zooplankton biomass may be regulated by food availability Wollmann et al.
Based on their water chemistry, the studied lakes represent two clearly different groups. Azure Lake, situated higher than the other lakes and fed by a small rainwater stream and water from the degraded land surface, had water characterized by an acidic to neutral pH 3. Conversely, the water of the Purple and Yellow lakes originates from rainwater that runs down the steep walls of the pyrite excavations, as well as from acidic water from neighboring adits, giving the water a strongly acidic pH 2.
The Azure and Yellow lakes have a sulphate-calcium water type, whereas the Purple Lake has sulphate—calcium—magnesium water. Another study from a pyrite mine pond in Portugal found that the water had a low pH and high concentrations of some metals Turnau et al. The best physicochemical conditions for biota appeared to occur in Azure Lake, which had an acidic to neutral pH and a relatively low concentration of metals.
The strongly acidic pH of the Purple and Yellow Lakes favors the occurrence of metals as free metal ions, which are more bioavailable and therefore, have a higher toxicity to organisms Kushner ; Ciszewski et al. Complexes of metals with strong ligands, especially sulphates, found in high concentrations in the Yellow and Purple lakes, could potentially decrease this metal toxicity. The positive correlations found between specific metals and the total density, or particular species, of rotifers in the Azure and Yellow lake water suggests that these metals were not toxic to these rotifers.
The Cu and Fe concentrations in the Purple and Yellow lakes, and Zn in Purple Lake, were within the range determined to be lethal metal concentrations for freshwater rotifers. Therefore, it is expected that the Cu, Zn, and Fe levels would be toxic to some rotifers living in the Purple and Yellow lakes. Furthermore, the negative correlation observed between Ni and E. In Azure Lake, the rotifers identified were clearly different from those in the Purple and Yellow lakes. In Azure Lake, which has a higher pH and lower conductivity, the dominant species K.
There were no acidophilic rotifer species in this lake, and the total number of species was higher than in the other studied lakes. In general, we observed a relatively low number of rotifer taxa 27 in total in the three water bodies. This has also been observed in other water ecosystems with low pH, such as the identification of only one species in the most acidic Australian lake Moser and Weisse and in an acidic meromictic lake in the Czech Republic Hrdinka et al.
Substantially fewer rotifer species were found in an acidic quarry lake by Horyath and Hummon Most species observed in the lakes evaluated in our study are common and widely distributed, however, few of these species have been described as typically found at a low pH.
The most abundant taxa observed in the studied lakes, including C. According to some authors, a low pH is the most important factor limiting the diversity of water organisms. In such ecosystems, the structure of the food web is less complex Wollmann et al. This hypothesis has been confirmed by Deneke , who found a positive correlation between the number of zooplankton species and an average pH of 2.
Our results also support this hypothesis. The Shannon—Weaver diversity index for the lakes included in this study was relatively low, ranging from 1. Our results indicate that physicochemical parameters other than pH can potentially influence the diversity of some rotifer species, as demonstrated by positive or negative correlation with phosphate, nitrate, DO, bicarbonate, EC, sulphate, and calcium in Azure Lake, ammonium, potassium, sulphate, DO, and bicarbonate in Purple Lake, and phosphate, sulphate, potassium, and calcium in Yellow Lake.
A similar observation was reported in coal mine water by Radwan and Paleolog Apart from pH, the most important factors appeared to be chloride, sulphate, calcium, and DO, all of which affected the occurrence and quantitative structure of rotifer assemblages. In conclusion, while the physicochemical parameters of the water showed considerable variability between the studied lakes, the pH and high concentration of some metals especially Cu and Fe had the greatest effect on the composition of rotifer communities.
The highest species diversity of rotifers was observed in the Yellow and Purple lakes, where the dominant species were acidophilic species.
Belyaeva M, Deneke R The biology and ecosystems of acidic pit lakes. Google Scholar. Blodau C A review of acidity generation and consumption in acidic coal mine lakes and their watersheds. Sci Total Environ — Burba A The design of an experimental system of estimation methods for effects of heavy metals and their mixtures on Daphnia magna.
Acta Zool Litu Hydrobiol 9 2 — Calmano W, von der Kammer F, Schwartz R Characterization of redox conditions in soils and sediments: heavy metals. Environ Monit Assess 12 — Hydrobiologia — DeNicola DM A review of diatoms found in highly acidic environments.
Derham T Biological communities and water quality in acidic mine lakes. Accessed 1 Nov Monogononta—atlas of species. Polish freshwater fauna. Appl Geochem —
Rotifer Diversity in the Acidic Pyrite Mine Pit Lakes in the Sudety Mountains (Poland)
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. We observed different morphotypes of some species in the family Brachionidae from the seasonal plankton samples of Lake Xochimilco collected during — We measured the body length, width, and spine lengths posterior and anterior spines of Brachionus havanaensis, Keratella americana, K.
The zooplankton of a hipereutrophic shallow lake of the central region of Argentina: changes after one decade. The water bodies ecology is influenced by the contributions of nutrients from the basin. The shallow lentic ecosystems generally presents high levels of eutrophy, which allows to sustain a highly productive zooplanktonic fauna. According to the model of the alternative states of shallow lakes, zooplankton of these environments is characterized by a taxonomic composition, a spectrum of sizes and therefore a biomass that depends on the fishes present.