Lalita A. Manrai 1 ; Ajay K. Geert Hofstede whose work inspired this research. We would also like to acknowledge the valuable comments of the two anonymous reviewers and the journal editor in finalizing this manuscript. Ajay K.
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Geert Hofstede, assisted by others, came up with six basic issues that society needs to come to term with in order to organize itself. These are called dimensions of culture. Each of them has been expressed on a scale that runs roughly from 0 to Each dimension has been derived by comparing many, but not all, countries in the world.
The findings can be summarized into six world maps of the distribution of that dimension. Of course, in reality there can be quite a bit of within-country variation; these maps should be seen as rough 'climate maps' of culture. The last two dimensions were found later, and in different studies, than the first four. This is why different countries appear on the world maps. These maps are taken from the book "Why we are different and similar" by Michael Minkov.
In our book they are re-scaled to a format. The scale is also reversed for Flexhumility long-term orientation, blue on the map versus monumentalism short-term orientation, orange on the map. Remember, the numbers do not really 'mean' anything. They are just there for convenience.
The world-wide pattern is what matters. For each dimension here is a brief description and a ten-minute video in which Geert Hofstede explains that dimension. Read more Individualism does not mean egoism. It means that individual choices and decisions are expected. Collectivism does not mean closeness. It means that one "knows one's place" in life, which is determined socially.
With a metaphor from physics, people in an individualistic society are more like atoms flying around in a gas while those in collectivist societies are more like atoms fixed in a crystal. Read more This dimension is thought to date from the advent of agriculture, and with it, of large-scale societies. Until that time, a person would know their group members and leaders personally.
This is not possible where tens of thousands and more have to coordinate their lives. Without acceptance of leadership by powerful entities, none of today's societies could run. Read more In a masculine society, men are supposed to be tough. Men are supposed to be from Mars, women from Venus. Winning is important for both genders.
Quantity is important and big is beautiful. In a feminine society, the genders are emotionally closer. Competing is not so openly endorsed, and there is sympathy for the underdog.
This is NOT about individuals, but about expected emotional gender roles. Masculine societies are much more openly gendered than feminine societies.
Read more Uncertainty avoidance has nothing to do with risk avoidance, nor with following rules. It has to do with anxiety and distrust in the face of the unknown, and conversely, with a wish to have fixed habits and rituals, and to know the truth. Long-term orientation deals with change. Read more In a long-time-oriented culture, the basic notion about the world is that it is in flux, and preparing for the future is always needed.
In a short-time-oriented culture, the world is essentially as it was created, so that the past provides a moral compass, and adhering to it is morally good. As you can imagine, this dimension predicts life philosophies, religiosity, and educational achievement. Indulgence is about the good things in life. Read more In an indulgent culture it is good to be free. Doing what your impulses want you to do, is good. Friends are important and life makes sense. In a restrained culture, the feeling is that life is hard, and duty, not freedom, is the normal state of being.
Since dimensions are imagined, not 'out there', there can be many more. Any study will reveal its own pattern, so yes, other dimensions can be found. Read more If you are interested, watch new publications by for instance Michael Minkov. Here, for now, we work with the 6D model. It has great validity and practical usability. The 6-D model of national culture Geert Hofstede, assisted by others, came up with six basic issues that society needs to come to term with in order to organize itself.
Dimension maps of the world: Individualism Each dimension has been derived by comparing many, but not all, countries in the world. Dimension maps: Power Distance. Dimension maps: Masculinity. Dimension maps: Uncertainty Avoidance. The last two dimensions The last two dimensions were found later, and in different studies, than the first four. Dimension maps: Long-term Orientation.
Dimension maps: Indulgence. The dimensions explained For each dimension here is a brief description and a ten-minute video in which Geert Hofstede explains that dimension. Long-term orientation Long-term orientation deals with change.
Are there more dimensions?
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication , developed by Geert Hofstede. It shows the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behaviour, using a structure derived from factor analysis. Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a worldwide survey of employee values by IBM between and It has been refined since.
Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams. The application of this research is used worldwide in both academic and professional management settings. The Hofstede model of national culture consists of six dimensions.