CONTABILIDADE GERENCIAL PADOVEZE PDF

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Laura B. Carreira 1. Omar J. Sabbag 2. The breeding of crocodilians is still a recent activity in Brazil. Its peak was in the 's, but it has gaps in its production, as there are no norms for the commercial breeding of these animals in captivity. However, its economic potential is great, and the search for ecological balance and viability of commercial production has become a challenge among farmers of this activity.

Therefor, the objective of the study was to economically analyze the production of Caiman crocodilus yacare on a farm located in Caceres, state of Mato Grosso, identifying relevant items of costs in the activity, as well as the parameters related to the profitability and viability of the activity. The breeding of Caiman crocodilus yacare is a recent activity in Brazil, reaching its peak in the 90s.

Since then, this activity has aimed to constantly improve its potential for production of meat and leather, in addition to reducing pressure on native stocks, thus preventing the extinction of these animals. However, due to planning mistakes of breeding, lack of market research and flaws in the nutritional management of the animals, there was a decline in the level of acceptance of the product by the market, especially the leather, as well as a drastic reduction in the number of breeders and captive animals at the end of that decade.

The economic potential of breeding alligator is huge due to the use of the urine fixative in perfumery , flesh and skin. Thus, breeding systems in development aim to optimize the product range that is more promising, currently the skin, whose production is estimated in produced skin area. In turn, the skin area at any age of the live alligator can be determined or estimated by the abdominal circumference of animals. Thus, one can also assume the yield of meat before slaughter and predict the optimal time of slaughter of the animal, based on the track or equilibrium of the "cost- benefit curves" according to the breeding system adopted Rieder et al.

One of the main advantages of studying the feasi bility of management systems for conservation and economic use or conservation through economic use of crocodilians is that there are examples of its extreme in terms of intensification ie, hunting and breeding in captivity as well as its intermediate version ie, creating offspring from eggs collected in the wild. Moreover, these systems have received names, internationally recognized, respectively: "harvest", "farming" and "ranching" Hutton and Webb To achieve success in a business, you need to make it give a sufficient economic outcome to cover all expenses incurred, remunerate the investiment and generate enough profit to reinvest in the activity as well as to adapt to changes in economic reality.

With the evolution of technology and the quest for acquiring better quality products, farmers need to develop more techniques in both the production area, and the financial management of their property Segala and Silva In this sense, the rural entrepreneur must decide how use their funds in productive activity through a comprehensive analysis in order to verify the viability of their investment.

Hence the need for a survey of the economic and financial viability of the enterprise in question. Because it is a breeding of high cost, with a high feed cost due to the diet of the animals being essentially protein, this study aimed to economically analyze the production of Caiman crocodilus yacare on a property located in Caceres, state of Mato Grosso, to identify relevant items pertinent to the activity, as well as the parameters related to the profitability and viability of the activity, the key factors for sustainability in the activity.

According to Piran , there is no record of breeding wild animals in captivity before Thus, the understanding is that all skins of crocodiles that fueled the market until were obtained from animals captured from nature.

Still according to Piran , the illegal exploitation of crocodiles was not driven solely by marketing the animal's skin, since their meat had been sold long before. Farming systems received the following designations: harvest or extensive management removal of individuals from a population without it entering into decline, thus seeking to establish a biologically sustainable and economically viable exploitation rate , farming or intensive management production and reproduction of a species in captivity in a closed cycle and ranching or semi-intensive management collection of eggs in nature and subsequent "fattening" of pups in captivity Verdade Still according to the author, several factors determine the success of management systems, among which:.

From the economic perspective, as advocated by Noronha et al. According to Hoffmann et al. For Nogueira , even more important than estimating and controlling costs is the producer make decisions based on the data collected. For that there are no correct and incorrect models, some are stricter and others less, but they should allow the producer to take managerial and operational decisions based on information on costs and cash flow.

In this sense, Sabbag et. To obtain the animals, the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Resources IBAMA demands that these be collected from farms which are accredited in the IBAMA; in the municipality there are six properties that are authorized by this agency, but they must comply with the following procedure: first the cooperative hires IBAMA so that it carries out an annual survey of potential breeding population, thus calculating a probable number of eggs at each spawning, and authorizing the collection of a percentage by the property, which will subsequently be bred in captivity until slaughter.

There is also a description of the work areas where the collections of the material are performed. The areas for collection and for procedure execution are described within the collect points. It also includes the number of nests with maximum average of eggs and hatchling , scientific name and common name of the species that will be collected.

The studied property has a total area of 12 hectares, containing four circular experimental tanks for hatchlings, 11 barns with 64 stalls of 2 x 2m each, four tanks with dimensions of 15 x 9.

In the period evaluated the property had about 30, animals of the species Caiman crocodilus yacare. To calculate the cost of production, the operational cost structure of production used by the Agricultural Economics Institute AEI , proposed by Matsunaga et al.

The operating cost consists of the following items: manual operations, materials and depreciation. Spending on materials referred to the cost of ingredients for feed preparation, equipment for refrigeration, visceral grinding equipment, equipment for washing live alligators, equipment for containing live animals, etc. These expenditures were obtained by the quantity of materials used and their respective unit prices. Depreciation was calculated on the straight-line method, proportional to the life span for each device.

The profitability indicators used in the study are considered by Martin et al. Still, for the analysis of the economic viability of the investment, a cash flow was drawn up, reflecting the values of the inputs and outputs of resources and products, and determining the Internal Rate of Return IRR which, by definition, is one that makes the net present value of zero, and is calculated as follows:. One of the most accepted principles of the financial theory is that the goal of financial management should be to maximize shareholder wealth.

This pre-concept and the implication that shareholder wealth is measured by NPV is often cited as a justification for the criterion of NPV in estimate capital applied Ross The commonly accepted definition of NPV in the literature is the present value of all cash flows assuming equity financing discounted at the weighted cost of the firm capital that is used Woods and Randall The cost-benefit analysis has been an appropriate tool to evaluate proposals for public projects since the middle of last century.

The theoretical tools are well established, to measure and compare the economic well-being Campbell and Brown Our initial hypothesis was that it was a costly activity, mainly because of the protein diet of the animals, and the difficult dealing with animals they do not consider as domestic animals.

Yet, even with all these obstacles in breeding, it was possible to diagnose a positive outcome in their revenue. Investments are considered as all costs of capital goods, which in the future will be transformed into benefits Padoveze To analyze the profitability of the production system, some inferences are exposed to result in gross revenue. Initially, the property holds three weekly slaughters of animals each, between years of age and kg because this is the point considered by the property as the balance between the skin quality and carcass yield.

The hot carcass of an animal weighs about 3 kg. Regarding the production of skin, these are classified by centimeter, where every centimeter of first line skin, i. However a second line skin, i. The type of cut is defined by customer request and do not interfere in the price of the raw material.

The profitability index PI , which indicates the proportion of gross income which constitutes profit after covering costs, resulted in In this regard, it is noteworthy that the profitability obtained was more expressive compared to other operating systems, such as corn It is worth noting that these results are established from the 4th year of production, where operating expenses are effective between 1 and 3 years in the production system.

The cash flow is shown by the difference between the inflows and outflows in cash over time, for a horizon of 15 years of the project. Source: Research data. According to Sanches et al. This study showed an IRR greater than the interest rate that could be received by the owner, if they chose to invest their capital in a more secure financial application, for example, the Selic rate Special System of Clearance and Custody , indicating that the activity is feasible under the conditions in which it was analyzed.

Still according to Kreuz et al. Given the above results for the producer in question, security in the decision to undertake the production of alligators in the medium term is understandable, demonstrating an IRR greater than the cost of capital. Faro also proposes that it is possible to calculate the payback period on the capital invested by the IRR and the cash flow. The following factors fall as potential barriers and causative of deficit in average annual revenues: a Seasonality of production: time where animal production may decline due to diseases, temperature changes, irregularity in the diet, among others, b Problems with input suppliers, which may cause decrease in production if there is a failure to provide these for numerous factor, such as lack of products to be purchased in the market, lack of capital for the acquisition of the same, difficulty negotiating with suppliers and c lack of demand: in this case the producer can stock products meat and skin temporarily, since they are perishable.

Therefor, in the long-term absence of demand by the consumers, producers may be unable to sell and therefore do not get enough revenue to maintain its production. Therefore, as claimed by Sabbag et al. Through the use of the key economic parameters, it was possible to quantify the production of a breeding unit of alligators, which allowed us to evaluate the profitability in the activity.

On the other hand, costs must be related to the technical management of the ctivity, considering the rationalization of production factors, such as labor and supplies, contributing to a lower operating cost. In a horizon of several cycles, the results are also attractive, with an IRR greater than the cost of capital for a horizon from the 6th year. In this context, the activity maintains its positive NPV, not incurring losses the economic outcome of its productivity.

In short, the quantification of the technical coefficients of production becomes essential rationalizing costs for a management process in the sector. A multiple account framework for cost-benefit analysis. Eval Program Plann 28 1 : Coutinho M. Embrapa Gado de Corte. Documentos: Faro C. Hutton J and Webb G. An introduction to the farming of crocodilians. Directory of Crocodilian Farming Operations 2: Machado AC. Nogueira MP. Scot Consultoria. Noronha JF. Padoveze CL. Piran C. Ross SA. Uses, abuses, and alternatives to the net-present-value rule.

Financial Management 24 3 : Silva EC. Verdade LM. Acesso em: 13 jan. The net present value of future investment opportunities: its impact on shareholder wealth and implications for capital budgeting theory.

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