The U. Army and CIA interrogation manuals are seven controversial military training manuals which were declassified by the Pentagon in The manuals in question have been referred to by various media sources as the "torture manuals". These manuals were prepared by the U. Some of the material was similar to the older CIA manuals described below.
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The U. Army and CIA interrogation manuals are seven controversial military training manuals which were declassified by the Pentagon in The manuals in question have been referred to by various media sources as the "torture manuals".
These manuals were prepared by the U. Some of the material was similar to the older CIA manuals described below. The Pentagon press release accompanying the release stated that a investigation into the manuals concluded that "two dozen short passages in six of the manuals, which total pages, contained material that either was not or could be interpreted not to be consistent with U. The Latin America Working Group criticized this: "The unstated aim of the manuals is to train Latin American militaries to identify and suppress anti-government movements.
Throughout the eleven hundred pages of the manuals, there are few mentions of democracy, human rights, or the rule of law. Instead, the manuals provide detailed techniques for infiltrating social movements, interrogating suspects, surveillance, maintaining military secrecy, recruiting and retaining spies, and controlling the population. While the excerpts released by the Pentagon are a useful and not misleading selection of the most egregious passages, the ones most clearly advocating torture, execution and blackmail, they do not provide adequate insight into the manuals' highly objectionable framework.
In the name of defending democracy, the manuals advocate profoundly undemocratic methods. After this investigation, the Department of Defense discontinued the use of the manuals, directed their recovery to the extent practicable, and destroyed the copies in the field.
Southern Command advised governments in Latin America that the manuals contained passages that did not represent U. Soon after, the U. This is the oldest manual, and describes the use of abusive techniques, as exemplified by two references to the use of electric shock, in addition to use of threats and fear, sensory deprivation, and isolation.
According to a declassified report prepared for the Senate intelligence committee, the manual was developed from notes of a CIA interrogation course in Honduras. Both manuals deal exclusively with interrogation. These manuals recommend arresting suspects early in the morning by surprise, blindfolding them, and stripping them naked. Suspects should be held incommunicado and should be deprived of any kind of normal routine in eating and sleeping. Interrogation rooms should be windowless, soundproof, dark and without toilets.
The manuals advise that torture techniques can backfire and that the threat of pain is often more effective than pain itself. The manuals describe coercive techniques to be used "to induce psychological regression in the subject by bringing a superior outside force to bear on his will to resist. Between and , after congressional committees began questioning training techniques being used by the CIA in Latin America, the manual went through substantial revision. In a page advising against using coercive techniques was inserted at the front of Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual.
Handwritten changes were also introduced haphazardly into the text. For example, "While we do not stress the use of coercive techniques, we do want to make you aware of them and the proper way to use them", has been altered to, "While we deplore the use of coercive techniques, we do want to make you aware of them so that you may avoid them.
A-2 But the entire chapter on coercive techniques is still provided with some items crossed out. The same manual states the importance of knowing local laws regarding detention but then notes, "Illegal detention always requires prior HQS [headquarters] approval.
The two manuals were completely declassified and released to the public in May , and are now available online. The Baltimore Sun was investigating "kidnapping, torture and murder" committed by the Honduran Battalion death squad. In the June 11 to 18, four-part series, The Baltimore Sun printed excerpts of an interview with Florencio Caballero, a former member of Battalion Caballero said CIA instructors taught him to discover what his prisoners loved and what they hated, "If a person did not like cockroaches, then that person might be more cooperative if there were cockroaches running around the room"  The methods taught in the manual and those used by Battalion in the early s show unmistakable similarities.
In , Caballero attended a CIA "human resources exploitation or interrogation course," according to declassified testimony by Richard Stolz , who was the deputy director for operations at the time, before the June Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. The manual advises an interrogator to "manipulate the subject's environment, to create unpleasant or intolerable situations. The manual gives the suggestion that prisoners be deprived of sleep and food, and made to maintain rigid positions, such as standing at attention for long periods.
Ines Consuelo Murillo, who spent 78 days in Battalion 's secret jails in , said she was given no food or water for days, and one of her captors entered her room every 10 minutes and poured water over her head to keep her from sleeping.
The "Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual -- " gives the suggestion that interrogators show the prisoner letters from home to give the prisoner the impression that the prisoner's relatives are in danger or suffering.
The Baltimore Sun reported that former Battalion member Jose Barrera said he was taught interrogation methods by U.
And better you cooperate, because if you don't, we're going to bring them in and rape them and torture them and kill them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Bush administration memos, see Torture Memos. This box: view talk edit. Retrieved November 7, Benning school". National Catholic Reporter.
Called 'torture manuals' The Telegraph. The Globalization of U. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved Duke University Press. Archived from the original on August 27, The Baltimore Sun.
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Is there a torture manual?
It was long suspected that the CIA was in the business of torture. But in , the American public saw chilling, irrefutable written proof. On the nature of pain, one disturbingly matter-of-fact passage explains:. The U.
The CIA’s Declassified Torture Handbook: How to Create a “World of Fear, Terror, Anxiety, Dread.”
Cold War U. Washington D. May 12, CIA interrogation manuals written in the s and s described "coercive techniques" such as those used to mistreat detainees at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, according to the declassified documents posted today by the National Security Archive. Army intelligence manuals that incorporated the earlier work of the CIA for training Latin American military officers in interrogation and counterintelligence techniques contained "offensive and objectionable material" that "undermines U. Recommendations on prisoner interrogation included the threat of violence and deprivation and noted that no threat should be made unless the questioner "has approval to carry out the threat.