Since , it publishes original contributions, case reports and review of clinical research with methodological approach in the areas of health and disease of neonates, infants, children and adolescents. The objective is to disseminate worldwide the Brazilian research with methodological quality on issues that comprise the health of children and adolescents. All articles are available in Portuguese and in English. To describe the frequency and etiology of rhinitis, oral breathing, types of malocclusion and orofacial disorders in patients treated for dental malocclusion..
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Since , it publishes original contributions, case reports and review of clinical research with methodological approach in the areas of health and disease of neonates, infants, children and adolescents. The objective is to disseminate worldwide the Brazilian research with methodological quality on issues that comprise the health of children and adolescents. All articles are available in Portuguese and in English.
To describe the frequency and etiology of rhinitis, oral breathing, types of malocclusion and orofacial disorders in patients treated for dental malocclusion.. Rhinitis and oral breathing were diagnosed by anamnesis, clinical assessment and allergic etiology of rhinitis through immediate hypersensitivity skin prick test with airborne allergens. The frequency of rhinitis in patients with dental malocclusion was There was no association between rhinitis and bruxism..
Patients with oral breathing have a tendency to a dolichofacial growth pattern increased Y axis of facial growth. In patients with rhinitis, regardless of the presence of oral breathing, the dolichofacial growth tendency was not observed..
Through the aeration of the pneumatic paranasal sinuses, breathing allows adequate facial development through pressure from the air flow and backflow through the nostrils. Obstruction in the airways, such as adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy, interferes with the inspiratory pressure.
The scarce nasal flow and the absence of tongue pressure against the palate lead to maxillary sinus hypoplasia, the narrowing of the nasal cavities and the upper dental arch, which favors dental malocclusion.
AR is considered a public health problem due to its high prevalence, as it impairs patient quality of life and has high social cost. The association between dental malocclusion and oral breathing in patients with AR, 12—15 as well as bruxism, 13 has been reported.
Reduction of craniofacial diameters, dental malocclusion anterior dental crowding, cross-bite, protruding jaw, receding jaw and direction of facial growth vector with a predominance of the vertical component, which is expressed by an increase in the growth Y axis in the cephalometric analysis have been described in patients with AR.
All patients underwent swallowing evaluation by a speech therapist before starting treatment. The appearance of papules with a mean diameter of 3mm larger than the diameter of the negative control to any aeroallergen characterized the SPT as positive and the patient as having AR. Patients divided into groups, with or without rhinitis and with and without mouth breathing were also evaluated for the presence of bruxism, type of malocclusion and increased Y axis.
The Y axis NS. The graphic representation of mandibular growth direction was made in relation to the base of the skull USP standard. When the Y -axis is decreased, it means that the growth occurs in a counterclockwise direction, which results in mandibular prognathism. These angular and linear measurements of facial, skeletal and dental characteristics were compared with the normal standards. Gn angle — Y -growth axis. The diagnosis of the type of malocclusion was made by an orthodontist VBTCD and the diagnosis of bruxism was based on information from parents about the habit of their children of grinding or clenching their teeth.
Rhinitis was diagnosed in Table 1 shows the alterations observed in patients according to the presence or absence of rhinitis. It also shows that the presence of mouth breathing was significantly more frequent in patients with rhinitis. Patients according to observed maxillofacial and occlusive alterations, considering the presence or absence of rhinitis or mouth breathing.
The presence of rhinitis and the increase in the Y -axis were significantly associated with oral breathing.
The frequency of allergic sensitization was The association between oral breathing and rhinitis has been widely documented and occurs as a result of nasal obstruction, which is one of the most uncomfortable symptoms of rhinitis.
As we realize the importance of breathing for orofacial development and dental occlusion, 1,3,12,13,17 patients with other causes of mouth breathing were excluded to avoid interference with the results. This result far exceeds the values observed in epidemiological studies in the general population. Similarly to what was reported by other authors, the presence of rhinitis was associated with mouth breathing, 6,9,10 which did not occur with the other parameters Table 1. When analyzing the patients based on the presence of mouth breathing, a significant association is observed between the latter and rhinitis, as well as having increased Y -axis growth standard dolichofacial growth , similar to what was observed by other authors.
Perhaps the association between rhinitis and nasal obstruction, accompanied by mouth breathing, favors dental malocclusions maxillary atresia, open bite, cross-bite, deep bite and dental crowding. It is worth mentioning that most patients with rhinitis assessed in this study did not have this condition diagnosed and among those with a medical diagnosis, few were adequately treated.
Additionally, the fact that dental malocclusion was the reason why patients sought treatment at the service suggests that the symptoms of rhinitis were underestimated by the family and very often by the doctors who treated them.
That shows the importance of a multidisciplinary assessment of patients with rhinitis and mouth breathing, to prevent complications such as dental malocclusion. It is believed that bruxism occurs due to the need the individual has to equalize the pressures in the internal and external ear, since the mucosal edema caused by rhinitis extends to the mucosal lining of the Eustachian tube and, by causing its obstruction, it determines a pressure imbalance. The grinding of teeth would help balance the pressures.
In conclusion, the frequency of rhinitis in children and adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment is high; most of them have an allergic etiology associated with mouth breathing, which determines significant increase in the Y growth axis, clinically observed as dolichofacial growth tendency. A multidisciplinary approach of these patients is critical.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Inicio Revista Paulista de Pediatria English Edition Frequency of rhinitis and orofacial disorders in patients with dental malocclusi ISSN: Discontinued publication For more information click here.
Previous article Next article. Issue 2. Pages June Frequency of rhinitis and orofacial disorders in patients with dental malocclusion. Download PDF. Tamara Christine de Souza Imbaud. Corresponding author. This item has received. Under a Creative Commons license. Article information. Table 1. Patients according to observed maxillofacial and occlusive alterations, considering the presence or absence of rhinitis or mouth breathing..
Objective To describe the frequency and etiology of rhinitis, oral breathing, types of malocclusion and orofacial disorders in patients treated for dental malocclusion. Results The frequency of rhinitis in patients with dental malocclusion was There was no association between rhinitis and bruxism. In patients with rhinitis, regardless of the presence of oral breathing, the dolichofacial growth tendency was not observed.
Figure 1. Fisher's exact test. Mattar, W. Anselmo-Lima, F. Valera, M. Skeletal and occlusal characteristics in mouth-breathing pre-school children. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 28 , pp. Costa, A. Valentin, H.
Becker, A. Pereira, S. Motonaga, P. Faria, M. Matsumoto, L. Trawitzki, A. Lima, et al. Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol, 67 , pp.
Banzatto, A. Grumach, J. Mello Jr. Di Francesco. Adenotonsillectomy improves the strength of respiratory muscles in children with upper airway obstruction. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 74 , pp. Pires, R. Di Francesco, A. Mello Jr.. Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol, 71 , pp. Bousquet, N.
Khaltaev, A. Cruz, J. Denburg, W. Fokkens, A. Togias, et al. Allergy, 63 , pp. Nunes Jr. Variation of patterns of malocclusion by site of pharyngeal obstruction in children.
Bruxismo en niños y adolescentes: Revisión de la literatura
Sleep bruxism in children and adolescents. ISSN Bruxism is a rhythmic masticatory muscle activity, characterized by teeth grinding and clenching. This is a phenomenon mainly regulated by the central nervous system and peripherally influenced. It has two circadian manifestations, during sleep sleep bruxism and awake states awake bruxism.
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