Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Dennst. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius , the Elephant Yam, belongs to the Aroid family, Araceae. This family contains many plants recognised as having horticultural appeal such as the Arum Lilies, Monstera , Syngonium and Philodendron. The family is characterised by its inflorescence, consisting of a fleshy spike of small flowers spadix usually subtended by a large bract spathe.

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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered.

Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched.

Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review. In spite of great advances of modern scientific medicine, traditional medicine is still the primary form of treating diseases of majority of people in developing countries including India; even among those to whom western medicine is available, the number of people using one form or another of complementary of alternative medicine is rapidly increasing worldwide.

Increasing knowledge of metabolic process and the effect of plants on human physiology has enlarged the range of application of medicinal plants. According to the report by the World Bank in , technical paper number , it is apparent that the significance of plant based medicines has been increasing all over the world.

Interestingly, the market demands for medicinal herbs is likely to remain high because many of the active ingredients in medicinal plants cannot yet be prepared synthetically. As example, we have western medicine with origins in Mesopotemia and Egypt, the Unani Islamic and Ayurvedic Hindu systems centred in western Asia and the Indian subcontinent and those of the Orient China, Japan, Tibet, etc.

How and when such medicinal plants were first used is, in many cases, lost in pre-history, indeed animals, other than man, appear to have their own materia medica. Following the oral transmission of medical information came with the use of writing example the Egyptian Papyrus Ebers c.

In al most all the traditional medical systems, the medicinal plants play a major role and constitute their backbone. Indian materia medica includes about drugs of natural origin almost all of which are derived from different traditional systems and folklore practices. Out of these drugs derived from traditional system, are of mineral and animal origin while the rest are of the vegetable origin.

India has a rich heritage of traditional medicine and the traditional health care system has been flourishing in many countries. Most recently, there has been interest in other products from traditional system of medicine Artemisinin is an active antimalarial compound isolated from Artimisia annua , a constituent of the Chinese antimalarial preparation Qinghaosu and forskolin was isolated from Coleus forskohlii , a species used in ayurvedic preparation for cardiac disorders.

A new standardized preparation, artemether has recently been introduced for treatment of drug resistant malaria, and new analogues of forskolin are being tested for a variety of uses. Traditional medicine is an important part of healthcare. Population in developing countries depends mainly on the indigenous traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs. Traditional medicines have not however been incorporated in most national heath systems and the potential of services provided by the traditional practitioners is far from being fully utilized.

During the last decade, the use of herbal medicine has been increased. Consequently, an increase in traditional tread in herbal medicines and other type of traditional medicines has occurred. Proper use of these different types of medicines has therefore become a concern.

Ayurveda, which can be utilized for development of new drug. Worldwide revolution for the improvement of patient safety is gaining momentum; hence drug safety for the subject becomes even more prominent in the present day scenario. Cultivation of medicinal plants with laboratory generated species is being attempted on the basis of chemical composition and is likely to be used in increased manner for commercial purposes.

These changes may have profound impact on the safety and efficacy of the Ayurveda drugs in the market. Hence, a mechanism is required to be put in place to address them.

Charaka Samhita , an Ayurvedic classic describes all the adverse reactions to medicines when they are prepared or used inappropriately. Charaka also describes elegantly, several host-related factors as to be considered while selecting medicines in order to minimize adverse reactions like the constitution of the patient Prakriti , age Vayam , disease Vikruti , tolerance previous exposure Satmya , psychological state Satwa , digestive capacity Ahara-shakti etc. The basic reason is unawareness of Ayurvedic physicians about collective use to this information resulting in their poor documentation and reporting.

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Dennst. Nicolson Syn. Amorphophallus campanulatus Blume ex Decne. The corms are acrid, astringent, thermogenic, irritant, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, anti-haemorrhoidal, haemostatic, expectorant, carminative, digestive, appetizer, stomachic, anthelmintic, liver tonic, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue, rejuvenating and tonic.

They are useful in vitiated condition of Vata and Kapha , arthralgia, elephantiasis, tumors, inflammations, haemorrhoids, haemorrhages, vomiting, cough, bronchitis, asthma, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, constipation, helminthiasis hepatopathy, splenopathy, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, seminal weakness, fatigue, anaemia and general debility.

A stout herbaceous plant with underground hemispherical depressed dark brown corm; leaves compound, large, solitary, petiole stout, mottled, cm long, leaflets It is also cultivated in Srilanka.

Loha - Suranava Loha, Surana Modaka [ 20 , 21 ]. Santosa et al. These loci provide microsatellite markers with high polymorphism ranging from three to 24 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.

This high allelic diversity indicates that the markers are suitable for a population study in A. However the flavonoidal and phenolic contents of ME was found to be higher. A flavonoid Quercetin from the ethylacetate fraction of corm of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius was isolated by column chromatography using gradient elution method. The isolated flavonoid was characterized by spectral studies.

A detailed pharmacognostic morphological, anatomical work and quantitative microscopic standards for the leaves of A. Paeoniifolius was carried out. The leaf is compound, solitary, petiole stout, mottled and tripartite showed microscopically dorsiventral in nature with epidermis, parenchyma, sclerenchyma, vascular bundles, air chambers, cell contents and no trichomes.

The anatomical details of petiole was also studied. The different leaf constants Stomalal number and Index, Vein islet and termination number, Palisade ratio were determined as a measure of quantitative microscopical standards. Morphological studies were done to determine the characteristics of leaves.

The leaves are large, solitary, tripartite; segments spreading, leaflets broad, sessile, obovate or oblong, acute and oblique at the base. The veins parallel, meeting at the ends forming intra marginal veins. The anatomy of leaf and petiole was studied by taking the transverse sections followed by staining.

The transverse section of leaf shows dorsiventral nature with prominent midrib with lamina attached on the adaxial part spreading laterally. The midrib has a thin epidermal layer of circular to rectangular cells with thin walls, centrally made up of wide air chamber, thick masses of sclerenchyma cells and parenchyma cells.

The air chambers are circular or angular vary in size from wide to narrow being located in the central part; the sclerenchymatous cells are found in thick masses located along the periphery of the midrib; the polyhedral, thin walled parenchyma cells covers the remaining portion of the leaf with starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. There are about ten small collateral vascular strands located in the central part, admixed with air chambers.

The leaf has dorsiventral lamina with a thick adaxial epidermis and a thin abaxial epidermis. The cuticle is less prominent. Numerous paracytic rubiaceous or parallel celled stomata are present only in lower epidermis.

The mesophyll tissue is made up of narrow band of palisade cells with abaxial spongy cells; the palisade cells are short, single layered conical in shape; the spongy mesophyll has few layers of much lobed and loosely arranged cells enclosing air chambers. The later view has small elliptical collateral vascular bundles with parenchymatous bundle sheet. The petiole is circular in cross sectional view with two short adaxial wings. It has thin distinct continuous layer of epidermis of squarish cells with this walls; inner to the epidermis there are several large masses of collenchyma cells and inner to them are compact fairly wide parenchyma cells.

In the central portion there are wide circular air chambers scattered among the parenchymatous ground tissue. The vascular system consists of peripheral strands and central strands; the peripheral strands are placed just aposed to collenchyma and central strands are more or less scattered in between the wide air chambers.

The phytochemical screening shows the presence of steroids, in the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tubers. Dey et al.

Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing response and tail flick method in mice respectively. The methanolic extract of A. The standard drug Diclofenac sodium showed significant increase in analgesic activity when compared with the control group of animals. Methanol extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius has prominent anti-inflammatory activity while the chloroform extract has milder activity.

Central nervous system depressant activity was evaluated using Actophotometer and Rota-Rod apparatus. After 60 minutes diazepam 0.

The percentage decrease in locomotor activity are Further studies about the probable receptors for central nervous system depressant activity of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius from synergistic drug interaction have been done which found that pet-ether extract has more synergistic activity on the CNS depression with diazepam than phenobarbitone. A spontaneous dose dependent CNS depressant activity was observed with pet-ether extract, diazepam, and phenobarbitone in Swiss albino mice.

The pet ether extract of A. After 60 minutes, the percentage inhibition of the CNS activity by pet-ether extract was found to be Diazepam at the dose level of 0.

After 60 minutes, the percentage inhibition of the CNS activity was found to be Further, from the dose response curve the effective dose ED 50 for the CNS depressant activity was calculated to be 0. Similarly, phenobarbitone at the dose level of 0.

After 60 minutes, the percentage inhibition of the CNS activity by phenobarbitone was found to be From the dose response curve the effective dose ED 50 for the CNS depressant activity was calculated to be approx. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of ethanol extract of tuberous roots of Amorphophallus campanulatus were assessed.

Disc diffusion technique was used to determine in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration MIC was determined using serial dilution technique to determine antibacterial potency.

The antifungal activity was found weak against the tested fungi. In cytotoxicity determination, LC50 of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 7. Further antifungal and antimicrobial properties of the various crude extracts of the drug by using cup-plate diffusion method against common pathogens viz. Among the different extracts, the methonolic extract of A.

A phytoconstituent amblyone, a triterpenoid from A. Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening.


Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson

Back Flora 1 6 Description and Ethnobotany Growth Form Deciduous herbaceous aroid shrub, up to 2. Solitary stem-like leaf stalk is fleshy, green and speckled with attractive paler green spots or blotches. Stalk arises from undeground tuber to reach 1. Foliage Leaf blade divided into hundreds of small leaflets, with whole cluster reaching 1.


Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. Acrid raw[2], it must be thoroughly boiled or baked[46, 61]. A very large root, it can be up to 50cm in diameter[, , ]. Caution is advised, see notes above on probable toxicity. Leaves and petioles - they must be thoroughly cooked[, ]. Caution is advised, see notes above on possible toxicity.


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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius , the elephant foot yam [4] or whitespot giant arum , [5] [6] is a tropical tuber crop grown primarily in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the tropical Pacific islands. Because of its production potential and popularity as a vegetable in various cuisines, it can be raised as a cash crop. Its origin and center of domestication was formerly considered to be India , where it is most widely utilized as a food resource in recent times. But a genetic study in have shown that Indian populations of elephant foot yams have lower genetic diversity than those in Island Southeast Asia, therefore it is now believed that elephant foot yams originated from Island Southeast Asia and spread westwards into Thailand and India, resulting in three independent domestication events. From Island Southeast Asia, they were also spread even further west into Madagascar , and eastwards to coastal New Guinea and Oceania by the Austronesian migrations , though they may have spread south into Australia without human intervention. The plant blooms annually around the beginning of the rainy season.


Elephant yam is a striking aroid with a flower spike crowned with a bulbous maroon knob and encircled by a fleshy maroon and green-blotched bract. The solitary leaf, which emerges after the flowering parts, resembles a small tree. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius has been in cultivation throughout tropical Asia for centuries. The tubers are the third most important carbohydrate source after rice and maize in Indonesia.

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