Healthcare systems are organized following one of two basic models: social security systems, which link access to health services to labor status, and national health systems, which grant access to health as a citizen's right. Mexico adopted, since the institutionalization of social security and healthcare services in , a mixed system. Social security institutions covered the salaried workers and public assistance was granted to the remaining of the population. At the beginning of the XXI century the Mexican health system entered a crisis as the conditions to expand health coverage through social security were not met and public assistance services were insufficient. In order to address these developments, the Healthcare Social Protection System was founded as a mechanism to effectively guarantee every person's right to health as established after the constitutional amendment of article fourth in Seguro Popular is the mechanism that through federal and states' contributions seeks to financially protect the population without access to social security's health services, and thus prevent impoverishment due to out of pocket and catastrophic health expenditures.

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Reaction of 1-bromochloropropane with tellurium and dimethyl telluride in the system of hydrazine hydrate-alkali. Russavskaya, N. A synthesis of oligomeric substance of thiocol type, the poly trimethyleneditelluride , from 1-bromochloropropane and elemental tellurium is performed using a hydrazine hydrate-alkali system. Mass spectra of the synthesized low molecular weight organotellurium compounds are considered [ru.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. The present paper studies the impact on environmental health by residuals of the rocket fuel 1,1- dimethyl hydrazine heptyl and its transformation products. The transformation products, comprising a variety of nitrogen containing compounds are suggested all to possess a significant migration potential.

In all cases the compounds were found being rapidly biodegradable. However, unexpected low microbial activity may cause significant changes. None of the studied compounds appear to be bioaccumulating. Apart from substances with an intact hydrazine structure or hydrazone structure the transformation products in general display rather low environmental toxicities. Thus, it is concluded that apparently further attention should be given to tri- and tetramethyl hydrazine and 1-formyl 2,2- dimethyl hydrazine as well as to the hydrazones of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as these five compounds may contribute to the overall environmental toxicity of residual rocket fuel and its transformation products.

Reaction of 1-bromochloropropane with tellurium and dimethyl telluride in the system of hydrazine hydrate-alkali; Reaktsiya 1-bromkhlorpropana s tellurom i dimetilditelluridom v sisteme gidrazin-gidrat-shcheloch'.

Khimii imeni A. Favorskogo, Irkutsk Russian Federation. Mass spectra of the synthesized low molecular weight organotellurium compounds are considered. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity. Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells.

Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management. Proposed amendment to the final decision document for the hydrazine blending and storage facility, interim response action. A secondary objective of this testing program was to generate design and operational information for use during the full-scale startup program.

Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor. Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine , flexibility, and resistance to heat.

Activity of the protector chlorophyllin or promoter of the genetic damage induced by the 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine ; Actividad de la clorofilina protectora o promotora del dano genetico inducido por la 1,2 dimetil hidrazina.

The chlorophyllin CHLN it is a porphyrin of soluble nutritious grade in water, derived of the chlorophyll that includes in their structure a copper atom. It has been reported that this pigment can act as anti mutagen, reducing the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogen action has also been studied during the initiation phase induced for carcinogen as the aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. In contrast the reports have increased on a probable promoter activity of the CHLN on the induced genetic damage.

This effect was seen for the first time before the damage induced by alkylating agents in Salmonella. Presently study is evaluated the protective effect or promoter of the CHLN before the genetic damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, by means of the bioassay mutation and somatic recombination SMART in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster.

It was measured the toxicity and the speed of development of the treated individuals. The wings of those adults that emerged were analyzed to register the number and the size of stains. The results of somatic mutation indicated that the CHLN has a protective effect only immediately after the pretreatment DRT-0 however in DRT-1, 2 and 3 showed a promoter effect of genetic damage.

Hydrazine blending and storage facility, interim response action, draft implementation document for rinsewater transfer, phase 2. The realisation of optical fibers active chemical collector to analyze hydrazine in line, in the spent fuel reprocessing process is the subject of this work.

The p. Sol-gel process preparation and evaluation of the analytical performances of an hydrazine specific chemical sensor. Determination of hydrazine in third loops of China experimental fast reactor by spectrophotometry.

The method for the determination of hydrazine by Uv-vis spectrophotometer was proposed. The coloration conditions and instrument parameters were also optimized. The complex's maximum absorption was exhibited at nm.

This method was used in the third loop of China experimental fast reactor with satisfactory results. Research on anhydrous hydrazine synthesis. The first part of this work concerns the radiolysis of pure liquid ammonia. The fundamental importance of the dose rate and of the dose on the yield of radiolytic products has been demonstrated.

By using a capture solute at concentrations of between 10 -3 and 1. An analysis of the molecular yields in the presence of deuterated solutes makes it possible to explain partially the role of the capture species. A project is also described for an installation producing hydrazine continuously; it is followed by an economic study of the process.

From this work it appears that the yields of hydrazine obtained justify an industrial application, especially if strong radiation sources are available, for example nuclear reactors.

Dihydropyrimidine based hydrazine dihydrochloride derivatives as potent urease inhibitors. Four series of heterocyclic compounds 4-dihydropyrimidinethiones series A , N,S- dimethyl -dihydropyrimidines series B , hydrazine derivatives of dihydropyrimidine series C , and tetrazolo dihydropyrimidine derivatives series D , were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro urease inhibitory activity.

The series B-D were first time examined for urease inhibition. Series A and C were found to be significantly active with IC50 values between The structure-activity relationship showed that the free S atom and hydrazine moiety are the key pharmacophores against urease enzyme. The kinetic studies of the active series A and C were carried out to determine their modes of inhibition and dissociation constants Ki.

Compounds of series A and series C showed a mixed-type of inhibition with Ki values ranging between The molecular docking results showed that all the active compounds of both series have significant binding interactions with the active sites specially Ni-ion of the urease enzyme.

Cytotoxicity of all series A-D was also evaluated against mammalian mouse fibroblast 3T3 cell lines, and no toxicity was observed in cellular model. All rights reserved. The purpose of this research project is to develop and validate a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. Hydrazine is used extensively in aerospace propulsion, and although liquid hydrazine is not considered detonable, many fuel handling systems create multiphase mixtures of fuels and fuel vapors during their operation.

Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the decomposition chemistry of hydrazine under a variety of conditions can be of value in assessing potential operational hazards in hydrazine fuel systems. To gain such knowledge, a reasonable starting point is the development and validation of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. A reasonably complete mechanism was published in , however, many of the elementary steps included had outdated rate expressions and a thorough investigation of the behavior of the mechanism under a variety of conditions was not presented.

The current work has included substantial revision of the previously published mechanism, along with a more extensive examination of the decomposition behavior of hydrazine. An attempt to validate the mechanism against the limited experimental data available has been made and was moderately successful. Further computational and experimental research into the chemistry of this fuel needs to be completed. Occupational safety considerations with hydrazine fuels.

A simple pharmacokinetic model and a specially designed dermal vapor exposure chamber which provides respiratory protection were used to determine the rate of penetration of hydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine UDMH vapor through the skin of rats.

Parameters for the pharmacokinetic model were determined from intravenous and inhalation exposure data. The model was then used to estimate the skin permeation coefficient for hydrazine or UDMH vapor from the dermal-vapor exposure data. This analysis indicates that UDMH vapor has a relatively high permeability through skin 0. Based on these skin permeability results, a skin-only vapor exposure limit giving protection equivalent to the inhalation Threshold Limit Value TLV could be calculated.

The corresponding skin-only TLV equivalents, for personnel wearing respiratory protection, are 32 ppm for UDMH and 48 ppm for hydrazine. Should the proposed lowering to the TLV's for these compounds to 0.

Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine. A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids ILs or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below deg C. More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants.

In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized.

Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point if applicable , and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine , ranging between 10 and seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant.

To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families.

Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts. Performance evaluation of a colorimetric hydrazine dosimeter. A dosimeter for real-time, colorimetric detection of hydrazine in air has been developed. The passive badge consists of a dosimeter card containing a vanillin solution coated on a thin paper substrate. The active patch consists of a thick cellulose substrate coated with a vanillin solution. Through a condensation reaction, vanillin reacts with hydrazine to form a colored product that absorbs in the visible region.

The hydrazone formed in the reaction is yellow; its intensity is proportional to the dose. When exposed passively to hydrazine , the experimental detection limit is less than 20 ppb-hrs. Extrapolated results indicate a detection limit of less than 5 ppb-hrs for long sampling periods. Relative humidity effects on badge response were minor.



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Small vessel vasculitis History, classification, etiology, histopathology, clinic, diagnosis and treatment; Vasculitis de pequenos vasos. Historia, clasificacion, etiologia, histopatologia , clinica , diagnostico y tratamiento. The classical clinical phenotype is leucocytoclastic vasculitis with palpable purpura, but manifestations vary widely depending upon the organs involved. Histopathologic examination in leucocytoclastic vasculitis reveals angiocentric segmental inflammation, fibrinoid necrosis, and a neutrophilic infiltrate around the blood vessel walls with erythrocyte extravasation. The etiology of small-vessel vasculitis is unknown in many cases, but in others, drugs, post viral syndromes, malignancy, primary vasculitis such as microscopic polyarteritis, and connective tissue disorders are associated, The diagnosis of small- vessel vasculitis relies on a thorough history and physical examination, as well as relevant antibody testing including antinuclear antibody and anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, hepatitis B and C serologies, assessment of complement, immunoglobulins, blood count, serum creatinine liver function tests, urinalysis, radiographic imaging and biopsy. The treatment is based primarily on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive agents.


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