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The following training circular was released by the U. Army in January Irregular forces are armed individuals or groups who are not members of the regular armed forces, police, or other internal security forces JP The distinction of being armed as an individual or group can include a wide range of people who can be categorized correctly or incorrectly as irregular forces.
Excluding members of regular armed forces, police, or internal security forces from being considered irregular forces may appear to add some clarity. However, such exclusion is inappropriate when a soldier of a regular armed force, policeman, or internal security force member is concurrently operating in support of insurgent, guerrilla, or criminal activities. Irregular forces can be insurgent, guerrilla, or criminal organizations or any combination thereof.
Any of those forces can be affiliated with mercenaries, corrupt governing authority officials, compromised commercial and public entities, active or covert supporters, and willing or coerced members of a populace.
Independent actors can also act on agendas separate from those of irregular forces. Figure I-1 depicts various actors that may be part of or associated with irregular forces. Closely related to the subject of irregular forces is irregular warfare. It also indicates that the non-state actors characterized as irregular forces may operate in other than military or even military-like paramilitary capacities.
Threats may include individuals, groups of individuals organized or not organized , paramilitary or military forces, nation-states, or national alliances. When threats execute their capability to do harm to the United States, they become enemies. A hybrid threat can consist of any combination of two or more of those components. Army training. The HT is a realistic and relevant composite of actual hybrid threats.
This composite constitutes the enemy, adversary, or threat…represented as an opposing force OPFOR in training exercises. Since the definition of hybrid threat includes other than military and paramilitary actors, it has broadened the application of the term OPFOR. FM Nevertheless, they may be disgruntled and hostile. Insurgents and guerrillas are normally motivated by social, religious, or political issues or some combination of those.
The local populace may provide active or passive support out of a different motivation than the insurgents or guerrillas they support. For example, the motivation of the populace might be financial payment or beneficial effects on business profits or security provided them. Certain types of motivation are common to insurgents and guerrillas, the two most likely components of the irregular OPFOR.
However, insurgents and guerrillas that agree to collaborate against a common enemy may or may not share the same motivations or ideology. In order to form an affiliated relationship, the organizations just need to have one or more motivations that coincide with or complement each other. An example of a coinciding motivation could be that both organizations resent the presence of an extraregional force in their country. An example of a complementary relationship would be if one organization has financial resources, while the other needs financial support.
The motivation that incites violent as well as nonviolent actions by the irregular OPFOR is often framed in the context of ideology. The irregular OPFOR acts in a particular way based on underlying grievances, which are often linked to the ideals of an ideology.
These unresolved grievances—perceived or factual—create conditions where armed and unarmed individuals believe they must act to obtain what they believe is a just solution.
The rationale and the resulting actions may be perceived in a positive and negative light by a relevant population. The motivation and rationale typically are one or more of the following:. Combinations among these factors can further complicate how to describe the motivation and ideology of a particular person or group. Other motivations exist and may become a primary prompt for action, though only loosely associated with a social, religious, or political agenda. Aspects of ethnicity, geography, and history affect personal and group relationships as witnessed in social status and networks, religion, and politics.
Combinations can occur among these factors to further complicate how to describe the motivation of a particular person or group. They may be attracted by an ability to satisfy a perceived critical want or need in their lifestyle. Allegiance to a clan, tribe, or familial grouping is an example of social identity and accountability. These forms of social allegiance can indicate why change is desired or required in a social order.
The same rationales can support why a set of ideals or practices must be sustained or expanded within a relevant population. Several common categories of social identity that can overlap with religious or political agendas are as follows:. A variation on these identity categories is an independent actor who conceives, plans, and conducts violent or nonviolent actions without any direction from another person or irregular force.
This type of individual may be sympathetic to the aims of a particular group, but have no contact with the group or affiliated members of the group. Religion can be a compelling motivation. As a personal belief, religion can be interpreted as divine edict and infallible. Practice of a faith system is a personal interpretation and decision. Some interpretations may be a purposeful misrepresentation never intended by an original religious author. Other clerics or radical splinter groups may honestly believe in a religious duty to pursue a fundamentalist approach to worship and lifestyle.
The irregular OPFOR may attempt to link religion with declarations that governing political authorities who do not accept a particular understanding of a faith doctrine are a wicked secular presence that must be destroyed and replaced with a fundamentalist theocracy form of governance. Cults, although not a religion by normal definition, can adopt similar forms of violence, mass murder, and mayhem as part of a self-proclaimed apocalyptic vision and purpose. Prevalent political systems that can be promoted by the irregular OPFOR include forms of governance such as—.
The irregular OPFOR can use motivations of a political ideology to attract the attention of a relevant population in order to develop influence with a particular community. Visible actions, often localized in perspective, focus on demonstrating power and authority.
Although three basic types of forces can be part of the irregular OPFOR, the distinctions among insurgents, guerrillas, and criminals are sometimes blurred.
That is because they may have more in common than they have that is different. From the viewpoint of the existing government authority, for instance, the activities of all three types are illegal, that is, criminal. Not just criminals but also insurgents and guerrillas can engage in criminal activities. Some insurgent organizations can include guerrilla units developed from within or affiliated and some guerrilla units may be part of an insurgency.
In advanced phases of an insurgency, guerrilla units may begin to look and act more like regular military units. The differences among these three can become blurred, especially within an urban environment or where the governing authority exerts strong control.
Intellectual property crimes involve theft of material protected by copyright, trademark, patent, or trade-secret designation. Such intellectual property is vital to local, national, and international economies. The interconnected global economy creates unprecedented business opportunities to market and sell intellectual property worldwide. Geographic borders present no impediment to international distribution channels. If the product cannot be immediately downloaded to a computer, it can be shipped and arrive by next day air.
However, the same technology that benefits rights-holders and consumers also benefits intellectual property thieves seeking to make a fast, low-risk profit. In addition, trafficking in counterfeit merchandise also generates large profits. The most egregious violators are large-scale criminal networks and transnational criminal organizations whose conduct threatens not only intellectual property owners but also the economy of nation-states.
Because many violations of intellectual property rights involve no loss of tangible property and do not require direct contact with the rights-holder, the owner often does not even know that it is a victim for some time. Intellectual property crimes can overlap with computer crimes, especially in the following areas:. Unauthorized obtainment of information or electronic media covered by copyright, trademark, patent, or trade-secret designation robs the rights-holders of their ideas, inventions, and creative expressions.
Such theft is facilitated by digital technologies and Internet file sharing networks. Although fraud schemes can involve copyrighted works, it is not mail or wire fraud unless there is evidence of any misrepresentation or scheme to defraud. Wire fraud can include the Internet. Intellectual property crimes may involve intercepting and acquiring the contents of communications through the use of electronic, mechanical, or other devices.
Criminals may then market the contents of an illegally intercepted communication, including intellectual property. Army U. TC The motivation and rationale typically are one or more of the following: — Personal or group social identity.
Social Identity Several common categories of social identity that can overlap with religious or political agendas are as follows: — Ethnocentric groups who understand race or ethnicity as the defining characteristic of a society and basis of cohesion.
Religion Politics Prevalent political systems that can be promoted by the irregular OPFOR include forms of governance such as— — Single-party totalitarian state. Intellectual property crimes can overlap with computer crimes, especially in the following areas: — Unauthorized access of a computer to obtain information. Share this:.
U.S. Army Irregular Opposing Forces Manual
ISBN 13: 9781422015698