COOKSEY CAWTHORNE PDF

Timothy C. Spanish translation of CC exercises courtesy of Maria Busso. One of the first "general" interventions for vestibular problems were the Cawthorne-Cooksey CC exercises, as shown below. Although some authors state that the CC exercises are outmoded, this is not true.

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Background: One of the vulnerable populations of any community are the elderly, who are exposed to poor balance, falls, injuries, reduced quality of life QoL and independency, and early death.

Considering the importance of balance in independently performing activities of daily living ADL and its impact on QoL, in this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of Cawthorne and Cooksey exercises CCE on QoL and balance of 60 to 80 year-old individuals in Shiraz, Iran.

Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on forty 80 to year-old individuals of Jahandideghan retirement center in Shiraz 20 in the intervention and 20 in the control groups in The intervention group did CCE in three minute sessions a week for 2 months.

The balance status of the participants was assessed with Berg balance test, and their QoL was also examined using SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire before the intervention and at 2 months post intervention. Conclusion: CCT improved QoL and balance of 60 to 80 year- old Shirazians, so considering the low cost, easy implementation, and considerable impact of the exercises, CCT could be used to prevent and treat balance disorders of the elderly.

Aging is a process through which slow, spontaneous, and progressive changes occur in the body structure over time and affect human life 1 - 3. In recent years, with increase in life expectancy, medical technology improvement, public health promotion, and mortality reduction, the life span of our population has increased 4. Thus, it is expected that the elderly population increase in the future.

Iran's population is aging along with the world's population. Common problems and diseases of the elderly include high blood pressure, urinary tract disorders, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dizziness, balance disorders, and falls 1. Among the health problems of the elderly, functional independence problems are more important.

Balance is defined as the ability to maintain a condition for voluntary activities and coping with protuberances internal or external , and in biomechanical aspect, maintaining body of mass BOM in base of support BOS area 8 , 9.

Maintaining balance requires an interaction between sensory visual, vestibular, somatosensory and motor systems within the central nervous system With the onset of aging, metabolic and physiological system changes which may affect musculoskeletal, vestibular, somatosensory, and visual systems and the ability of elders to maintain balance, putting them at risk of injuries, such as falls, fractures, and long disability.

These negative changes threat QoL of the elderly and prevent them to perform their activities of daily livings ADLS QoL has become one of the most important contemporary issues in health care. During the later years, QoL has been found to be as important as duration of life for many older individuals; however, it is currently unclear whether physical activity plays a role in improving QoL in older adults.

Only a limited amount of research has been conducted in this area, and results from this research are equivocal Decline of balance in the elderly would increase their risk of fall. As falls can affect performance and independence, identifying those at risk of falls and developing diagnostic and treatment methods can improve QoL and independence, and can also reduce health care costs.

Vestibular exercises, such as the ones described by Cawthorne and Cooksey, may serve as support for new arrangements of peripheral sensorial information, allowing new vestibular stimulation patterns necessary for new experiences to become automatic. CCE is the most common protocol for vestibular rehabilitation program, which involves balance centers, such as visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular activities; also, CCE can be used to enhance the formation of new environmental sensory information and it has the ability to improve balance responses, and thus, reduce falls 13 , Rasteh et al.

Also, the study results of Ribeiro et al. Balance is a necessary component for performing activities of daily living and independent and dynamic living, so reduction in such abilities due to poor balance leads to dissatisfaction and reduction in QoL. Thus, it seems that by performing such exercises, the balance and QoL of elders improve. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the effect of CCE on balance and QoL of 60 to 80 year- old Shirazians.

The research sample consisted of forty 60 to 80 year- old Shirazians, who attended Shiraz Jahandideghan retirement center. The study was conducted during March and June in Shiraz Jahandidegan retirement center. The first person was placed in each group by drawing lots and the next person was put in the other group; this procedure was continued until sample saturation. The intervention and control groups were matched by age, weight, and height.

All samples were selected and were asked to provide a written informed consent form. In this study, inclusion criteria were as follow: the MMSE questionnaire score of higher than 21; and no history of psychiatric, neuromuscular, orthopedic, neurological, and rheumatologic disorder. Participants completed a demographic form. The intervention group performed CCE in minute sessions 3 days a week for 2 months. All assessments were repeated for the 2 groups after 2 months.

Also, the participants in the control group received rote exercises, such as music therapy, exercise therapy, and reminiscence.

Other activities to improve balance are as follow: 1 climbing up and down the stairs using handrail, if necessary, 2 standing up and taking sudden 90o turns first with eyes open and then with eyes closed, 3 while walking, looking to the right and the left as if reading labels in the market, 4 practicing standing on one foot with the right foot and then the left foot first with eyes open and then with closed eyes, 5 standing up on a soft surface, a walking on the surface to get used to it, b walking on the tip of the feet first with eyes open and the, with eyes closed, c practicing exercise 4 on a soft surface, 6 circling around a person that is on the center who throws a large ball, which should be thrown back, and 7 walking around the room with eyes closed 14 , BBS contains 14 items, each grading on a 5-point Likert scale 0 to 4 , representing different levels of difficulty.

The BBS total score ranges from 0 to 56, with higher scores indicating a higher level of functional balance. Acceptable levels of intra- ICC: 0. SF36 quality of life questionnaire: SF is a questionnaire used to assess quality of life.

The SF consists of 2 main components i. The Persian version of the SF is a reliable and valid measure of health related QoL among the general population. The internal consistency showed that all 8 SF scales met the minimum reliability standard, with the Cronbach's alpha coefficients, ranging from 0. Also, convergent validity showed satisfactory results, ranging from 0.

In the present study, BBS and SF36 were performed daily in Jahandideghan retirement center before and after the intervention for both control and intervention groups. SPSS software Version 19 was used for data analysis. For descriptive analysis, we calculated the mean and standard deviation. Independent t test was calculated to analyze change scores between the 2 groups. Significance level was set at 0. A total of 40 elderly individuals participated in this study in 2 groups control and intervention Fig.

As demonstrated in Table 1 , the mean of age, height, and weight of the participants in the intervention and control groups were in the same range. Intervention and control groups were matched by age, height, and weight.

Based on Table 3 , the differences in change scores was significant in the physical part of SF36 Questionnaire. However, the change differences were not significant in the physiological part of SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Some participants were excluded from the study in the intervention and control groups due to the following reasons: 3 were excluded because of having a mild cerebral stroke, 1 participant had shingles disease, 2 were unwilling to continue the study, 2 went abroad , and 2 had an accident and hip fracture.

The results revealed that CCE improved balance and QoL of the elderly participants, which is in line with previous studies 14 , However, to our knowledge, no study has assessed QoL and balance at the same time. In addition, the number of randomized clinical trial studies that evaluated the effect of CCE on the elderly was inadequate. Only few studies were done on healthy elderly such as Rybrol study in , whose result was in line with that of ours In a review study conducted by Natalia in 16 , 4 studies used CCE and expressed positive results for the influence of vestibular rehabilitation on postural control, administrative capacity, and QoL in the elderly and the middle-aged.

Duration of the intervention in Rasteh study was 3 times a week for 3 months; however, according to the results, 2 months is enough to improve balance in the elderly and prove the hypothesis of this study.

Thus, intervention time in the present study was 2 months performing the exercises 3 days a week. The results of the study showed that this 2- month intervention was enough to improve balance and QoL physical section According to the results, QoL scores in physical dimension improved, but there was no significant effect in the psychological dimension, which may be due to insufficient time for the intervention.

It is suggested that during the intervention, effective interventions such as music, relaxation techniques, and breathing exercises be considered to improve the psychological aspect. Moreover, it should be determined whether these exercises, along with CCE, can promote psychological health in a 2- month intervention.

Considering the possibility of easy implementation, low cost, ability to perform CCE in groups, and the fact that imbalance as a result of falls in many cases resulted in loss of independence and QoL, it is highly recommended to provide training and implement these exercises to elders. Thus, bearing in mind the low cost, easy implementation, and considerable impact of these exercises, they could be used to prevent and treat balance disorders in the elderly.

The limitations in this study were small sample size, lack of blindness, and lack of follow-up. This article was supported by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The authors declare that they had no conflict of interest. Effect of cawthorne and cooksey exercises on balance and quality of life of 60 to 80 year- old individuals in Shiraz: A randomized clinical trial. Med J Islam Repub Iran. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Published online Aug Find articles by Abolghasem Fallahzadeh Abarghuei. Find articles by Mahsa Fadavi-Ghaffar. Find articles by Safoura Tousi. Find articles by Malek Amini. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author: Mahsa Fadavi-Ghaffari, moc. Received Nov This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3. Abstract Background: One of the vulnerable populations of any community are the elderly, who are exposed to poor balance, falls, injuries, reduced quality of life QoL and independency, and early death.

Introduction Aging is a process through which slow, spontaneous, and progressive changes occur in the body structure over time and affect human life 1 - 3. Procedure Participants completed a demographic form.

Results A total of 40 elderly individuals participated in this study in 2 groups control and intervention Fig. Open in a separate window. Table 1 Descriptive statistics for participants. Graph 1. Graph 2. Discussion The results revealed that CCE improved balance and QoL of the elderly participants, which is in line with previous studies 14 , Limitations The limitations in this study were small sample size, lack of blindness, and lack of follow-up.

Conflict of Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References 1. University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, 1st ed.

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Vertigo Relief: How to Do Cawthorne Head Exercises

Background: One of the vulnerable populations of any community are the elderly, who are exposed to poor balance, falls, injuries, reduced quality of life QoL and independency, and early death. Considering the importance of balance in independently performing activities of daily living ADL and its impact on QoL, in this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of Cawthorne and Cooksey exercises CCE on QoL and balance of 60 to 80 year-old individuals in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on forty 80 to year-old individuals of Jahandideghan retirement center in Shiraz 20 in the intervention and 20 in the control groups in The intervention group did CCE in three minute sessions a week for 2 months. The balance status of the participants was assessed with Berg balance test, and their QoL was also examined using SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire before the intervention and at 2 months post intervention. Conclusion: CCT improved QoL and balance of 60 to 80 year- old Shirazians, so considering the low cost, easy implementation, and considerable impact of the exercises, CCT could be used to prevent and treat balance disorders of the elderly. Aging is a process through which slow, spontaneous, and progressive changes occur in the body structure over time and affect human life 1 - 3.

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Do you often feel dizzy — like the room is spinning? If so, you may be experiencing vertigo. If left untreated, vertigo can become a serious problem. Luckily, vertigo is something that can be treated. A variety of medications, therapy, and even surgical procedures can help with feelings of dizziness.

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