Part 1. Discourse is never one-dimensional. Talk comes from one of these places. As Heidegger says, we re thrown beings-in-the-world of pre-existing socio-symbolic relations. A ready made world of language we absorb and regurgitate, ordered into relations by languages orientation towards the logos 1 that which gathers meaningful relations and maintains them. The Other is all the words and expressions of a language with all expanding and contracting that language use implies.
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Part 1. Discourse is never one-dimensional. Talk comes from one of these places. As Heidegger says, we re thrown beings-in-the-world of pre-existing socio-symbolic relations. A ready made world of language we absorb and regurgitate, ordered into relations by languages orientation towards the logos 1 that which gathers meaningful relations and maintains them. The Other is all the words and expressions of a language with all expanding and contracting that language use implies. A child is born into a world which has already anticipated his or her birth coming into the symbolic order and will learn the language of the family.
When a baby cries they do not know what they want, the parents interpret the cries to give them meaning and on satisfaction of the supposed need i. The baby does not yet have language, but as they grow, they learn to develop language to balance their inarticulate needs the cry with socially symbolized articulatable resolutions. This is the human beings alienation in language, as language mediates what we want: we want and not want the same thing.
The self is an other, the ego is an other, but the most foreign of all is the unconscious, which itself is language signifiers. The unconscious may form linkages that are not contextually correct but have an unconscious logic, such as word plays and anagrams. Language obeys grammar: rules of transformation and slippage that link signifiers.
Signifies link to a chain. Consciously, we talk in terms of language the Other and desires fantasy , these are the Others fantasies in so far as they are chains of signifiers. Slips and problems articulating language shows when words and phrases interfere in the signifying chains.
The unconscious records to memory all signifying chains, which can contain many disparate elements. When hearing certain words, images, sounds etc, the associations within signifying chains can be remembered. This often happens with negative effect, as is the case of the neurotic 5. We internalize the foreign presence of language and become subjectivized by it, where we order ourselves and the world through its flow, or we feel so overwhelmed by it, its pressures and estrangements, that we kill ourselves.
Foreign Bodies. Our bodies are written with signifiers. The child is polymorphously perverse because he or she has not yet learnt to focus his libidinal energies into specific zones which become part of erotic adult discourse oral, anal, and genital. The child learns to recognise and prioritize these zones through socialization the training of child by the parents and civil society.
The living body is killed by the signifier. It does not exist for itself but always in the service of the signifier. Psychoanalysis developed initially from the thesis that hysterics could be talked into a cure hysteria being the malfunction of body parts. By reworking the associations of symbolic chains, the patients could overcome their hysteria. Sexual pleasure is tied to the Other, as a linguistic phenomenon.
Sexual desires such as looks, body type, peripherals and props, outfits and role plays are linguistically structured. But the choice of fantasy is subjectively ours. Making people take responsibility for that is the toughest of tasks. Speaking beings do not use language but are used by it.
As Heidegger says, we are primordially within language. Language speaks. We try and choose our words, but much of the time we are stuck for words, or muddle up sentences, say the wrong thing or repeat things again and again. Certain words present themselves to us but they may not be the right ones or the most appropriate. Dreams and memories are formed from the condensation of signifiers onto our consciousness. As signifiers condense on our consciousness they bring other completely unrelated chains into touch with our consciousness and produce a metonymic effect things related to that signifier.
Unconscious content is indestructible and unpredictable and based not on grammatical logic of natural languages such as English , but more to do with artificial languages computer, mathematics, etc which work to rules of logic unfamiliar to us.
Remembering, in the unconscious, is not to do with our will to order information for our disposal, but how signifying chains keep count and regulate each other through a syntax rules and laws that is not from a pre-existing reality.
This syntax may prevent us from remembering, bringing to consciousness, certain signifiers, as these may be blocked by their ordering within the unconscious. The unconscious cannot forgotten. The Unconscious assembles. Language in the unconscious ciphers decodes a code. Language brings meaning to the meaningless. And so for the patient, the root cause of a symptom, in its raw form, is always an irreducible, signifying element which subjects the patient.
Signifiers form bridges with their mimetic, metaphoric, accidental, phonic content and similarities. These manifest themselves in signifying chains which for the neurotic, requires an often meaningless cipher to produce the desired overcoming of a symptom. Knowledge without a subjective. This is a passive inscription onto the subject, brought by a connection between signifiers. J1 the primordial Khoratic, pre-symbolic pleasure is the first jouissance.
Therefore, existence is a product of language. Language brings things into human reality language brings things which had no existence reality via a process of ciphering.
The Real does not exist as it proceeds language. That which is unsybolized ex-sists 6. This is a Heideggerian term which means to stand apart, or outside of that which exists. Ex-sistence resonates with the word ecstatic and ecstasis, which brings ex-sistence into the economy of jouissance.
The Real is that which is not yet symbolized and resists symbolization. It is the job of the analyst to let the analysand person being analysed to put into words that which was previously unarticulatable.
The goal of analysis is to focus on the scraps of the Real which have been too traumatic to think about. By daydreaming, talking and thinking about these traumatic things they can be brought into relation with other signifiers. The trauma is a blockage fixation which is the opposite of language. For in melancholia, there is no substitution because something of the Real remains to be symbolized.
To bring it into movement and out of fixation. The first experience of the Real is as a baby R1 , which is them mediated by language R2 , yet as there can only be a set of 2, R1 is constantly circled while never achieving it.
Interpretation hits the cause. The analyst manipulates the analysand to circle around that which he or she is unable to put into words. Garbled speech and conflated words bring us closer to the stuff of language than well articulated phrases, serving as a bridge between the symbolic and the Real.
They may not have clear meaning, but these words may resonate deeper within the subject than we cam ever tell. Incompleteness of the symbolic order: The w hole in the Other. Language is a structurally untotalizable thing, as a set of all signifiers cannot exist as there is always something Other which is outside of language. There is always a kink in the system, an aporia. R2 is the set which seeks to include everything, all symbolization, yet cannot include everything as it fails to include R1, the unsymbolizable R2 cannot possibly include.
Structure Vs. The signifying chain is the structure that functions automatically. Then there is the cause which interrupts the chain. Structuralism looks exclusively at this first level, while Lacan is concerned with this and with the second level disturbance of the signifying chain that produces an object and subjugates a subject.
Science does not think the cause as Lacan does, it thinks cause as structure, the smooth flow of events determined by laws removes the subject from the cause. For Lacan, structure is la langue. The Lacanian Subject. Lacan defends both structuralism and post-structuralism. Structure and subject are essential to each other, where the subject is that supposed thing, an assumption. The thinking subject is the ego, which is a sedimentation of ideal images.
These are compounded through identification of oneself in mirrors between months. The child is quite uncoordinated, a jumble of sensations and impulses. The mirror presents a unified surface that becomes charged with libidinal value when the powerful parents give praise to qualities and ideas that should be recognised such as: it is you in the mirror; sit straight; be a model son; bad boy.
Images of others and people all act as mirrors of the form that the child recognises as being similar to itself.
These images of self are perpetually in flux, grafted onto each other, brought into linear reflection and identified as being the same self but in flux. The ego is a construct, Freud calls it an agency, but Lacan rejects the ego which is the set of narcissism and fixation and focuses on the unconscious. The Lacanian subject is not the subject of the statement, of that which is said, as this is the ideal image represented by the subject. Is is this type of unconscious fluctuating opinion and enunciation that slips into our discourse, unannounced and unknown to us as we say it.
The subject is fleeting and appears in eruptions to the smooth flow of things, it breaks the signifying chain only to be replaced by the signifier thus killing the subject.
The subject is barred by language, hides behind the signifier and is therefore alienated within the Other. The Freudian subjective.
Freud makes the unconscious into an agency, while Lacan never does this. This subject, as breach, has no life or longevity. Thinking and being for Descartes overlap momentary, but there is not being without thinking. Ego thinking is conscious rationalization and is thus false and fake.
The Lacanian Subject: Between Language and Jouissance
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The Lacanian Subject : Between Language and Jouissance
Bruce Fink (psychoanalyst)