In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh , descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Despite staunch opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad , the Umayyads embraced Islam before the latter's death in A member of the clan, Uthman , went on to become the third Rashidun caliph in —, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiya I , after the assassination of Ali ibn Abi talib in and established the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in Damascus , Syria. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty , the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam , and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time.
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Seeing some present conditions that a detailed biography of Yazid should be compiled so that true facts of his life and background may become known to all, we plan to discuss the following points in this treatise:. Since a lot of time and leisure is required to write on all the above topics, I have decided to write on each topic whenever there is opportunity. And when all the topics are covered we can compile them into a book.
If Allah the High, wills. The exegesis and commentaries on these verses is from the books of Ahl al-Sunnah themselves. Thus he became so aggrieved by it that he never laughed as long as he lived and the Almighty Allah revealed the following verse:.
And very soon they would become your rulers. Then you would find them bad rulers; and the Messenger of Allah s. Thus Almighty Allah revealed this verse. When the reason for this was asked he said: I was shown in my dream that the Banu Umayyah are barking from my pulpit.
At that time the Almighty Allah revealed this verse. Therefore he was aggrieved due to it. At that time the Almighty Allah revealed that they shall only get the world and they shall remain alien to the Hereafter. So the Messenger of Allah s.
And that revelation is the following statement of Allah:. As if both Banu Umayyah and Satan are same by way of being tests for the people. That is why when the Messenger of Allah s. Shia commentator, Mulla Mohsin Faid has also in his Tafsir Safi quoted the same traditions in the explanation of this verse and after that he says:.
In the end, the respected commentator has pointed out a very interesting point in this verse that in it while the Almighty Allah described the evil handiworks of this family, He has also mentioned in it by name the greatest villain of this clan:. The worldly pomp and grandeur of Banu Umayyah that is mentioned above was not by the wish and will of the Almighty as in the case of Prophet Yusuf and Prophet Sulaiman a.
But as clearly stated before, it was by way of test of the people. The matter is further elaborated in the following verse in which the Almighty Allah tells His Messenger to say to them:. And I do not know if this may be a trial for you and a provision until a time. Thus after praise to the Almighty, Imam Hasan a.
It is wrong to think that Imam Hasan a. The fact is that this verse was only revealed about the kingdom of Banu Umayyah. Now please see this narration:. All the intrigues and plots of Banu Umayyah to acquire this kingdom were apparently conducted in the name of religion, while the fact was they had done all this after ignoring and abandoning the commands of God. Thus the third verse explains this matter in the same way. And among men there is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge and without guidance and without an illuminating book, Turning away haughtily that he may lead others astray from the way of Allah; for him is disgrace in this world, and on the day of resurrection We will make him taste the punishment of burning: This is due to what your two hands have sent before, and because Allah is not in the least unjust to the servants.
That how steadfast he was in praying, fasting and charity. The Messenger of Allah s. Just then, the person in question arrived there and we said that it was the same person.
As soon as the Messenger of Allah s. Thinking that since the Holy Prophet s. When Umar came with the sword he found the man in prostration. Hence he also returned and described the situation. Sit down. And I know that if you find the man you would surely kill him. And if you kill him right now there would never be disunity among the people of this community of mine. He returned and reported the situation. At that time the Messenger of Allah s. And the nation of Isa a. And my people shall be divided into 73 sects.
One shall go to Paradise and all others to Hell. When such was the condition of the followers of Banu Umayyah and for them this verse was revealed in denouncement, the conditions of the Banu Umayyah themselves could be estimated easily.
In any case, Allah so much liked to fight the supporters of Banu Umayyah that He issued a clear command that just as the infidels were fought for the spread of Islam in the same way the Banu Umayyah should be fought severely for the defense of Islam as the fourth verse is clearly saying. And fight in the way of Allah, such a fighting as is due to Him… So, Chief of believers, for what time this command is? It is very astonishing, that in spite of knowing this Umar gave the opportunity to Banu Umayyah to consolidate their position in Syria.
And he made such an arrangement for a person in the Shura committee that he should be selected the caliph in any way. And in his caliphate Umar gave an equal share to Abdur Rahman bin Auf. He had sent forty men with his son to Muawiyah to give the allegiance of Yazid. How beautiful! Muawiyah was certain of his dishonesty and falsehood. In any case, the time that the Almighty Allah indicates is that of the time of the Jihad of Imam Husayn a. Such was the significance of this Jihad in the view of the Almighty that He considered these ten days of Muharram to be worthy of honor and He has sworn by it as clearly mentioned in the fifth verse of our discussion:.
I swear by the daybreak, and the ten nights… The following traditional report is mentioned in its exegesis in Tafsir Durre Manthur : The first ten days of Muharram, the first ten days of Zilhajj and the last ten days of the month of Ramadan.
It is obvious that there is no apparent reason for the significance of the first ten days of Muharram except that a magnificent confrontation between truth and falsehood was to take place during these ten days in which apparently falsehood shall be victorious but in fact it would be badly vanquished.
And it was in remembrance of this event that very much before its actual occurrence these days were made sanctified and venerable.
Thus among the Jews also the 10th of Muharram was considered a holy day. In the ancient age, the Jewish year began from the month of Rajab and Muharram was the seventh month of their calendar. It is mentioned in the Old Testament Leviticus You shall do no laborious work; and you shall present an offering by fire to the Lord. And you shall do no work on this same day; for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement for you before the Lord your God.
For whoever is not afflicted on this same day shall be cut off from his people. And whoever does any work on this same day, that person I will destroy from among his people. You shall do no work: it is a statute forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
It shall be to you a Sabbath of solemn rest, and you shall afflict yourselves; on the ninth day of the month beginning at evening, from evening to evening shall you keep your Sabbath. In any case, the kingdom of Banu Umayyah and in it, the martyrdom of Imam Husayn a. Thus when the Holy Prophet s. So that the Messenger of Allah s.
Therefore the Surah Qadr was revealed. Surely We revealed it on the grand night. And what will make you comprehend what the grand night is? The grand night is better than a thousand months. The angels and the Spirit descend in it by the permission of their Lord for every affair, Peace! It is until the break of the morning.
Thus Allah revealed on him that it would be only apparent rulership that those people shall achieve. And these verses were revealed that:. Thus this matter was very shocking to me. So the Almighty Allah revealed these verses.
Imam Hasan a. The Imam said:. Thus, he was very aggrieved due to this. We have bestowed Kauthar to you. Qasim says that when we calculated the duration of the rule of Banu Umayyah we concluded that indeed it lasted for a thousand months.
Neither a day more nor less. The aim of the Holy Imam a. Rather their domination remains like before on all the world and on all the things. And in exchange of the difficulties of the brief reign of a thousand months of Banu Umayyah the Almighty Allah has given them the Day of Judgment. And in the Hereafter, He has bestowed them with the Pool of Kauthar. That the kingdom of the Night of Power shall remain with Ahl al-Bayt a.
However, the magnificence of Ahl al-Bayt a. In the end let me explain how the reign of Banu Umayyah lasted for a thousand months. The reign of Banu Umayyah commenced in Rajab 41 A. And the Bani Abbas demolished the kingdom of Marwan al-Himar, the last Umayyad ruler in no time, though Marwan continued to confront them in sporadic fighting upto 12th Rabi al-Awwal A.
Caliphate of Banu Umayyah
The third Caliph , Uthman ibn Affan r. The family established dynastic, hereditary rule with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria , who became the sixth Caliph after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in After Mu'awiyah's death in , conflicts over the succession resulted in a Second Civil War  and power eventually fell into the hands of Marwan I from another branch of the clan. Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rebellion led by the Abbasids in
Availability date:. The minimum purchase order quantity for the product is 1. Publisher: Dar-us-Salam Buy with an account and earn 15 loyalty points. Darussalam is proud to present the abridged English translation of the classic work: Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah , which covers the Caliphate of Bani Umayyah. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Makkah, their capital was Damascus. At its greatest extent, it covered more than five million square miles 13,, km2 , making it one of the largest empires the world had yet seen, and the seventh largest contiguous empire ever to exist. Source: Wikipedia.
Seeing some present conditions that a detailed biography of Yazid should be compiled so that true facts of his life and background may become known to all, we plan to discuss the following points in this treatise:. Since a lot of time and leisure is required to write on all the above topics, I have decided to write on each topic whenever there is opportunity. And when all the topics are covered we can compile them into a book. If Allah the High, wills. The exegesis and commentaries on these verses is from the books of Ahl al-Sunnah themselves.