Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved treatment, but it has to be taken for a lifetime, has major side effects and is ineffective in patients in whom the virus develops resistance. Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary field that is revolutionizing medicine in the 21st century. At the end of , around 33 million people were living with the virus, with 2. This has caused tremendous social and economic damage worldwide, with developing countries, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, heavily affected. Early treatments focused on antiretroviral drugs that were effective only to a certain degree. The first drug, zidovudine, was approved by the US FDA in , leading to the approval of a total of 25 drugs to date, many of which are also available in fixed-dose combinations and generic formulations for use in resource-limited settings to date, only zidovudine and didanosine are available as true generics in the USA [ 8 , 9 ].
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There is no specific technology for the treatment of AIDS. Some drugs of specific composition are given to the patients which are able to increase the life time to a few years only. To make the treatment more specific we use the new technology called Nanotechnology which has bio-medical application. The size of nanorobots is about times lesser than the size of an animal cell and hence it can easily monitor the behavior of cell inside the body.
It operates at specific sites and has no side effects. Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of nanometers 10 -9 meters. Nanorobots would be typically devices ranging in size from 0. Nanorobots are to likely be constructed of carbon atoms, generally in diamond structure because of inert properties and strength, glucose or natural body sugars and oxygen might be source at propulsion, Nanorobots will respond to acoustic signals.
Like all viruses, HIV cannot grow or reproduce on its own. HIV belongs to a special class of viruses called retroviruses. Within this class, HIV is placed in the subgroup of lent viruses. An HIV particle is around billionths of a meter in diameter. Unlike most bacteria, HIV particles are much too small to be seen through an ordinary microscope. However they can be seen clearly with an electron microscope as shown in Fig.
Zidovudine is the latest known drug that is used for treatment of aids. But any time this drug can lose its efficiency as mutation at the codon no. Zidovudine can be used to resist the HIV but the virus cannot be destroyed. Most animal cells are 10, to 20, nanometers in diameter.
This means that nanoscale devices having at least one dimension less than nanometers can enter cells and the organelles inside them to interact with DNA and proteins. Tools developed through nanotechnology may be able to detect disease in a very small amount of cells or tissue. Nanotechnology could make it possible to run many diagnostic tests simultaneously as well as with more sensitivity. In general, nanotechnology may offer a faster and more efficient means for us to do much of what we do now.
So whenever it will come in contact of an infected cell the Ab will react with that by an immunochemical reaction and will identify this. Its a chip which will receive the signal from nanobiosensor and will perform its job. Its a tube in nanoscale. A nanocontainer will contain highly concentrated DNase and RNase enzyme which will be delivered into the infected cell and will cleave the whole genomic DNA into single nucleotides.
The function of the biosensor is to identify a particular compound. In this case the biosensor will contain a particular antibody. The gp41 and gp are two unique HIV envelope protein which is found in the cell membrane of the infected cell.
The antigen gp41 and gp protein and antibody reaction will give the proper signal. In case of infected cell only this reaction will take place as those viral proteins are found in the cell membrane of the infected cell only. The DNase enzyme is not sequence specific and as a result it will cleave the whole genomic DNA containing the viral genome into single nucleotides.
Once the viral genome loses its sequence it loses its viral effect and after the digestion of the whole genomic DNA the cell undergoes normal programmed cell death called apoptosis. Thus the infected cell of the diseased body can be destroyed to finish off the viral genome in the body as shown in Fig. The paper is just a theoretical justification. But the recent advancement in the field of Nanotechnology gives the hope of the effective use of this technology in medical field. This is the beginning of nano era and we could expect further improvements such as a medicine to AIDS using nanotechnology.
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Anti-HIV using Nanorobots
Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens. Nano is one billionth of one. Nanotechnology is the technology in which the operations are performed on nanometrics. It is the application of different technologies primarily interested in the reduction of size. The credential part of this paper gives the theoretical application of nanodevices in the treatment of AIDS. There is no technology for the treatment of AIDS.
Emerging nanotechnology approaches for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention